Ambivalence- lack of clarity; wavering; being undecided

Cantankerous- bad-tempered; quarrelsome

Derogatory- uncomplimentary

Exemplify- to serve as a good example

Impecunious- having no money

Lucid- clear

Ornate- highly decorated

Precipice- steep slope

Salubrious- health-giving

Truant- shirker; someone absent without permission

Abhor - hate

Bigot - narrow minded, prejudiced person

Counterfeit - fake; false

Enfranchise - give voting rights

Hamper - hinder; obstruct

Kindle - to start a fire

Noxious - harmful; poisonous; lethal

Placid - calm; peaceful

Remuneration - payment for work done

Talisman - lucky charm

Ambulatory- able to walk around (used of hospital patients)

Capacious- spacious

Desecrate- to damage or pollute a holy place

Exhaustive- complete and thorough

Impious- wicked; profane

Ludicrous- ridiculous; silly

Orthodox- conventional

Precipitous- done in a hurry

Salutary- something which teaches you a lesson; beneficial

Truncate- cut short

Ambulatory- able to walk around (used of hospital patients)

Capacious- spacious

Desecrate- to damage or pollute a holy place

Exhaustive- complete and thorough

Impious- wicked; profane

Ludicrous- ridiculous; silly

Orthodox- conventional

Precipitous- done in a hurry

Salutary- something which teaches you a lesson; beneficial

Truncate- cut short

Postulate- hypothesize; propose

Robust- strong; healthy; tough

Tractable- obedient; dutiful; polite

Alchemy- medieval chemistry; attempt to change base metal into gold

Burnish- polish

Deliberate- to think over deeply

Euphony- pleasant sounds

Iconoclast- person who opposes orthodoxy

Levity- flippancy; joking about serious matters
Abrasive - rough; coarse; harsh

Bilk - cheat; defraud

Covert - hidden; undercover

Engender - cause

Hangar - storage area (like garage) for a plane

Knotty - complex; difficult to solve

Nuance - something subtle; a fine shade of meaning

Plagiarism - taking credit for someone else's writing or ideas

Renown - fame

Tangent - going off the main subject

Abasement - humiliation; degradation

Billowing - swelling; fluttering; waving

Cower - recoil in fear or servility; shrink away from

Enhance - improve; make better or clearer

Harangue - noisy, attacking speech

Labyrinth - a maze

Nullify - to counter; make unimportant

Plaintiff - petitioner (in court of law)

Replete - full

Tangible - can be touched

Abrogate - cancel; deny; repeal

Blasphemy - speech which offends religious sentiments

Credible - believable

Enigma - puzzle; mystery

Harbingers - indicators; bringers of warnings

Labyrinthine - complicated; highly convoluted

Nuzzle - cuddle; snuggle

Plaudit - statement giving strong praise

Reprehensible - shameful; very bad

Tardy - slow; late; overdue; delayed

Absolution - forgiveness; pardon; release

Blatant - obvious

Creditable - praiseworthy

Ensconce - establish firmly in a position

Hasten - hurry; accelerate; rush

Laceration - a cut

Obdurate - stubborn

Plausible - can be believed; reasonable

Reprieve - a respite; postponement of a sentence

Tawdry - of little value; gaudy

Alacrity- eagerness; enthusiasm; quickness

Burgeon- grow; flourish; put forth new shoots

Deleterious- harmful

Euphemism- a polite phrase to cover something unpleasant

Hypocritical- insincere

Lethargic- tired; without energy

Ogle- stare at; observe in an obvious manner
Abstain - desist; go without; withdraw

Blighted - damaged; destroyed; ruined

Credulous - gullible; ready to believe anything

Enshroud - cover

Haughtiness - arrogance; pride

Lachrymose - tearful; sad

Obfuscate - deliberately make something difficult to understand

Plethora - an excess

Repudiate - shun; eschew

Tedium - boredom

Abstemious - self denying; refraining from indulging

Blithe - free-spirited; carefree

Enunciation - clear pronunciation; accent; articulation

Headstrong - stubborn; wilful

Lacklustre - dull; monotonous; bland

Objective - unbiased; not subjective

Pliable - flexible; not stubborn

Rescind - retract; repeal

Temper - to moderate; soften

Abstruse - difficult to understand; obscure

Blunderbuss - 1. ancient weapon (type of gun); 2. a clumsy person

Cringe - recoil; flinch; shy away

Envenom - to cause bitterness and bad feeling

Hedonism - self indulgence; pleasure-seeking

Laconic - using few words; brief; to the point

Oblique - indirect; slanting

Plumage - feathers of a bird

Resignation - acceptance of fate

Tenacious - stubborn; resolute; holding firm to a purpose

Accolade - tribute; honour; praise

Bolster - support; prop up

Cryptic - puzzling; enigmatic

Ephemeral - short-lived

Hedonist - a pleasure seeker

Lamentation - expression of regret or sorrow

Obliterate - destroy; demolish; eradicate

Plummet - fall suddenly and steeply

Resolution - determination

Tentative - not certain

Olfactory- concerned with the sense of smell

Potable- suitable for drinking

Rotund- round

Tranquil- peaceful

Alibi- an excuse that shows someone was not at a crime scene

Buttress- strengthen; support

Delineation- demarcation; explanation; definition; outlining

Evacuate- vacate; empty; abandon

Idiosyncrasy- a personal peculiarity; something unique to an individual
Acquiesce - to agree to; give in to

Bombast - arrogant, pompous language

Curtail - cut short

Epicure - someone who appreciates good food and drink

Heed - listen to

Lampoon - ridicule; spoof

Oblivious - totally unaware

Podium - raised platform

Resonant - echoing

Tenuous - flimsy; not solid

Acrid - sharp; pungent (used of smells and tastes)

Boorish - ill-mannered

Cynical - believing that people act only out of selfish motives

Epistle - a letter (form of communication)

Heresy - against orthodox opinion

Lance - spear; spike; javelin

Obscure - difficult to understand; partially hidden

Poignant - deeply moving; strongly affecting the emotions

Respite - a break; intermission

Terse - concise; to the point

Acrophobia - fear of heights

Bourgeois - middle class

Debility - weakness; incapacity

Epistolary - concerned with letters; through correspondence

Hiatus - interruption; pause

Languid - tired; slow

Obscured - hidden; covered; buried

Poised - calm; collected; self-possessed

Resplendent - shining; glowing

Therapeutic - medicinal; curative

Acuity - sharpness (mental or visual)

Braggart - someone who boasts

Debunking - exposing false claims or myths

Epitomized - typified; characterized; personified

Hidebound - rigid in opinions

Languish - decay; fade away; get weaker

Obsequious - servile; submissive

Polemical - causing debate or argument

Restorative - a tonic

Thwart - prevent; frustrate

Libertarian- someone who opposes tyranny

Ominous- threatening

Potent- powerful; compelling; strong

Ruminate- think over something; ponder

Transcribe- copy

Allay- to lessen

Byline- the line that tells you who wrote an article

Demur- hesitate; refuse

Exacerbate- make worse

Ignominious- shameful

Liniment- soothing lotion

Omnipotent- all-powerful

Pragmatic- practical

Ruse- trick; stratagem

Transgress -go astray; disobey; commit a sin
Adamant - forceful; inflexible

Brawny - muscular

Decathlon - an athletic competition with ten events

Equivocate - speak ambiguously; avoid telling the truth

Hieroglyphics - 1. picture writing; 2. writing which is difficult to read or enigmatic

Larceny - theft; robbery; stealing

Obsession - a dominating concern

Ponderous - weighty; slow and heavy

Retention - preservation; withholding

Timorous - cowardly; fearful

Adroit - skilful

Brevity - being brief

Decorum - dignified, correct behaviour [decorous (a)]

Err - make a mistake

Hinder - obstruct

Largess - generosity

Obsolete - no longer valid

Pontificate - speak pompously or dogmatically

Reticent - restrained; holding something back; uncommunicative

Tirade - stream of verbal abuse

Adulation - strong admiration; worship

Bristle - to show irritation

Decoy - lure; trap; trick

Erratic - wandering; irregular

Histrionic - theatrical; exaggerated

Laud - praise

Obstreperous - noisy and boisterous

Portend - foretell

Retraction - withdrawal; cancellation of a statement

Titter - giggle quietly

Adversity - hardship

Broach - start to discuss; approach

Deference - respect

Esoteric - obscure and difficult to understand

Hoary - old

Lavish - on a grand scale; wasteful

Obtuse - mentally dull

Portent - a warning sign; omen

Revere - worship

Tome - large book

Alleviate- make less severe

Cacophony- discordant loud noises

Denounce- condemn; speak out against

Exasperated- frustrated; annoyed

Ignominy- shame [ignominious (a) = shameful]

Lithe- flexible; supple

Omniscient- all-knowing

Pragmatist- practical person; one who is concerned with usefulness

Saccharin- falsely sweet

Transient- short-lived; ephemeral
Advocate - support

Brusque - blunt; abrupt

Defoliate - cause leaves to fall off

Espouse - promote; take up; support

Hone - sharpen; increase; whet

Lax - careless; not strict

Obviate - avoid; make unnecessary

Poseur - someone who puts on an act

Riddled - full of (usually full of holes)

Torpid - inactive; lazy; stagnant

Aesthetic - concerning art or beauty

Bulwark - fortification; barricade; wall

Defunct - no longer in existence

Etymology - the study of word origins

Sallow- yellowish

Trivial- unimportant

Cauldron- huge cooking pot

Deplore- regret

Exculpate- free someone from blame; pardon; acquit

Illusory- deceptive; false; misleading

Lobbyist- person who tries to persuade someone to support a particular cause

Onus- burden

Precarious -unstable; risky

Sagacious- wise

Trepidation- fear

Amass- accumulate

Callow- immature

Depravity- moral corruption

Execrable- very, very bad

Immoderate- excessive; extreme

Lofty- snooty; arrogant; haughty

Opaque- does not let light through

Precedent- a previous occurrence used as a guide

Sage- a wise person

Trinket- something of little value; knick-knack

Ambiguity- uncertainty; vagueness

Candid- frank; honest

Deprecate- criticize; denounce

Exegesis- scholarly explanation or interpretation

Immutable- unchanging; permanent

Longevity- long life

Opulent- wealthy; rich; magnificent

Hyperbole - grossly exaggerated speech

Legend - 1. key to map; 2. myth or story

Odious - hateful -

Posterity - future generations

Rife - common

Torpor - dormancy; sluggishness; inactivity

Affable - friendly; social; easygoing

Bureaucracy - officialdom

Degradation - deprivation; poverty; debasement

Eulogy - praise

Hypochondriac - a person obsessed with health; having imaginary illnesses

Legion - in large numbers

Officious - domineering; intrusive; meddlesome

Posthumous - after death

Rigour - thoroughness

Totter - walk unsteadily
Ameliorate- make better

Capitulate- surrender; give in to

Desecration- spoiling something holy

Exonerates- acquits; absolves; removes blame

Impoverished- destitute; poor

Lukewarm- 1. unenthusiastic; 2. neither hot nor cold

Ossify- 1. turn to bone; 2. become fixed and rigid

Preclude- prevent or make impossible

Sanctimonious- hypocritically holy

Tumult- uproar; noise

Amelioration- improvement

Carping- constant criticism

Desist- stop; discontinue; cease

Exorcism- getting free/rid of; eliminating (especially demons)

Impromptu- unrehearsed; spontaneous

Lummox- clumsy person

Ostentatious- showy

Precocious- developing early

Sanction- give approval to

Turpitude- depravity

Amiable- friendly

Cartographer- person who makes maps

Despondent- having no hope; miserable

Expatriate- refugee; emigrant; someone living away from his own country

Inadvertent- not intentional

Luscious- juicy; moist; succulent

Oust- push out of a position

Predecessor- one who came before

Sanguinary- bloodthirsty; bloody

Tyro- novice; beginner

Amity- friendship

Castigate- scold strongly

Destitution- hardship; poverty; misery

Expedient- convenient; practical

Incantation- chant; invocation; prayer

Lynch- assassinate; kill; illegal hanging

Overt- obvious; not hidden

Predicament- dilemma; difficult situation

Sanguine- optimistic; cheerful

Ubiquitous- found everywhere; omnipresent

Amorphous- lacking in shape

Catharsis- purging of pent-up emotions

Deter- put off; prevent

Expedite- make faster

Incarceration- putting in prison

Machinations- plots and plans

Overwrought- worked up; in an emotional state

Pre-eminent- famous; outstanding

Sardonic- mocking

Unalloyed- undiluted; total

Analgesic- medicine to combat pain

Caucus- type of private political meeting

Deteriorate- worsen; decline

Exposition- clear explanation

Incessant- without stopping

Maelstrom- whirlpool; storm in the ocean

Palatable- good to eat; agreeable

Prerogative- right or privilege

Savant- person with knowledge

Unctuous- oily; using excessive flattery

Analogous- comparable

Caustic- burning

Detrimental- harmful

Extol- praise

Incipient- just beginning

Magnanimous- generous; big-hearted

Palisade- fence made of posts

Prescient- having fore-knowledge

Scale- to climb

Undermined- damaged; attacked

Anarchy- chaos; lack of government

Cavalcade- procession of vehicles

Devoured- greedily eaten/consumed

Extradite- deport from one country back to the home country

Inclination- tendency; a leaning toward

Magnate- powerful businessman

Palliative- a remedy that improves but doesn't cure

Presentiment- a feeling that something might happen

Scapegoat- person on whom blame is placed for faults of others

Underscore- emphasize

Aloof- distant; detached; cold

Cajole- coax

Deplete- use up; lessen

Exceptionable- very bad (something which we should object to)

Illuminate- to light up or make clear

Livid- very angry

Onerous- burdensome; hard to undertake

Preamble- introductory material

Sacrosanct- very holy; inviolable

Traverse- to move across

Altruism- putting others first; being self-sacrificing
Presumptuous- assuming too much; arrogant

Scrupulous- careful; diligent; painstaking

Unequivocal- clear; obvious

Animosity- hatred; antagonism

Censorious- disapproving; critical

Dichotomy- a division into two parts

Extrapolate- extend; predict on the basis of known data

Incongruous- not fitting in; out of place

Malady- illness

Palpable- easily felt; easily perceived

Pretentious- pompous; self-important

Scrutinize- examine carefully

Unfetter- set free

Annex (n)- a building which is an addition to an existing building

Censure- blame

Didactic- intended to teach; instructive

Extrinsic- irrelevant; on the outside

Inconsequential- unimportant; insignificant; negligible

Malediction- a curse

Panacea- remedy for all ills

Prevaricate- speak misleadingly and evasively

Scuttle- sink

Unfrock- to remove a priest from his position

Annex (v)- take possession of; seize; capture

Cerebral- intellectual

Diffident- lacking confidence

Fallacious- false

Inconspicuous- not easily seen; subtle; not noticeable

Malefactor- a wrong-doer

Paradigm- 1. example; 2. model; 3. way of looking at things

Pristine- unspoiled

Seminary- an institution in which priests are trained

Unprecedented- never having happened before

Anomaly- something which does not fit in a pattern; irregularity

Certitude- certainty

Digress- wander off the subject

Falter- hesitate; waver

Indelible- cannot be wiped out

Malinger- deliberately avoid work; shirk

Paradox- apparently contradictory statement

Proclivity- tendency towards

Sensuous- appealing to the senses

Unscathed- unharmed; intact; without a scratch

Antagonism- hostility; strong opposition

Charlatan- trickster who claims knowledge he doesn't have

Dike- dam; embankment

Fanatical- obsessive; fixated

Anecdote- a brief amusing story

Celerity- speed

Dexterous- skilful with hands

Extraneous- irrelevant

Incoherent- not clear

Maladroit- clumsy; not skilful

Pallid- pale

Indifferent- 1. neutral; 2. not outstanding

Malingerer- person who deliberately tries to avoid work

Paragon- a perfect example

Procrastinate- delay; put off

Sentinel- guard; sentry

Unwitting- not deliberate; unconscious

Antagonistic- opposed; hostile; aggressive

Chary- wary of; cautious about; reluctant to give

Dilatory- slow; falling behind with one's work

Fanaticism- passion; excessive devotion

Indigenous- native to a particular area

Malleable- flexible; can be shaped

Paramount- of supreme importance

Prodigal- wasteful; extravagant

Sequester- isolate

Upbraid- scold; tell off; reprimand

Antediluvian- outdated; prehistoric; very old-fashioned

Chastises- punishes

Dilemma- puzzling situation

Fastidious- overly particular; finicky

Indolence- laziness

Mallet- 1. wooden hammer; 2. stick used for polo

Parasite- 1. scrounger; 2. animal which takes digested food from another

Prodigious- very large

Serendipity- fortunate coincidence; unsought discovery

Uproarious- hilarious; hysterical; very funny

Anthology- a book which is a collection of poems or stories

Chicanery- trickery

Dilettante- person who dabbles in a subject without serious study

Fatuous- silly; foolish

Inductee- novice; beginner

Parched- dried up

Profane- unholy

Serene- calm; peaceful

Upshot- outcome

Anthropocentrism- putting man at the centre of one's philosophy

Chimerical- changeable; unstable

Diligent- hard-working

Feasible- possible and practicable

Indulgent- pampering; satisfying desires

Marred- damaged; spoiled

Pariah- an outcast from society

Profanity- swearing; cursing

Serrated- jagged; saw-like

Urbane- sophisticated; suave

Precept- guiding principle

Salacious- lecherous; erotic

Trite- unoriginal; dull

Ambiguous- unclear in meaning; can be interpreted in different ways

Candour- frankness; openness

Deride- ridicule; make fun of; mock

Exemplary- outstandingly good; setting a fine example

Impartial- unbiased; neutral

Loquacious- talkative

Ordain- 1. destine; 2. confer holy orders on a priest

Precinct- district of a city
Conciliate- to bring together; end a dispute

Dynamic- lively; vibrant; energetic

Garner- gather; collect

Inveterate- habitual

Moratorium- temporary prohibition or halt to activity

Perjury- telling lies under oath

Quirk- oddity

Stratagem- plot; plan; trick

Vivify- enliven

Banal- common; dull

Concise- stated in few words

Ebullient- very lively; cheerful; jovial; happy

Garrulous- talkative

Invidious- arousing envy

Moribund- on the point of death

Pernicious- destructive; harmful

Ramble- wander aimlessly

Strident- loud and harsh

Vociferous- noisy; loud in speech

Banality- ordinariness; dullness

Condescend- talk down to

Eccentric- unusual; quirky; odd

Gaunt- emaciated; bony and angular

Inviolable- cannot be invaded

Morose- gloomy; bad tempered

Ramifications- branches; subdivisions of a complex system; outcomes

Stringent- strict or severe

Volatile- dangerously unstable; evaporates easily

Bane- troublesome influence

Condone- tacitly support; overlook

Eclectic- taking things from different sources

Genre- a category; type

Irascible- easily angered

Mundane- ordinary; worldly

Perpetuated- caused to continue

Rancour- resentment; animosity; bad feeling

Strut- swagger; show off

Voluble- talkative

Bard- poet

Condoning- overlooking; disregarding; ignoring

Edifice- building; structure; construction

Germane- relevant

Ire- anger [irate (a) = very angry]

Munificent- generous; charitable

Perpetuity- eternity

Rant- use bombastic language

Stupefying- astonishing; shocking; stunning into silence

Voluminous- very large; spacious

Bastion- fortress; stronghold

Conflagration- big fire

Efface- wipe out; remove all trace of

Germinal- just growing; not developed; immature

Irksome- annoying; infuriating

Mutinous- very rebellious

Personable- attractive

Ratify- approve; consent

Subpoena- summons to court

Voracious- ravenous

Befuddle- confuse
Benign- kindly; harmless

Contumacious- stubborn

Embroil- involve in hostility or argument

Guileless- frank; straightforward; honest

Jocular- in a joking manner

Nondescript- having no special features; dull and ordinary

Pillage- plunder

Redundant- unnecessary; superfluous

Susceptible- vulnerable

Wispy- flimsy; frail; delicate

Benignity- compassion; gentleness; fondness

Contusion- a bruise

Emerge- come out; appear

Gullibility- unwariness; trustfulness; being easily fooled

Jollity- gaiety; happiness

Nonentity- a person of no importance; not famous

Pinnacle- topmost point

Referendum- public vote

Suspect- doubtful

Wistful- melancholy; pensive; expressing a longing for

Bequeath- leave something in one's will to be given after one's death

Conundrum- a puzzle

Emulate- to imitate something admired

Gullible- easily fooled

Jubilant- ecstatic; delighted; rejoicing

Nostalgia- longing for the past

Pious- very religious

Refute- disprove

Sybarite- lover of luxury

Zany- crazy; wacky

Berate- scold; criticize

Conventional- usual; customary; common

Endorse- give support or approval to

Gustatory- concerned with the sense of taste

Judicious- correct in judgement; wise

Notoriety- infamy; known for wrong doing

Pivotal- of central importance

Regale- entertain

Sycophant- boot-licker; flatterer

Zeal- enthusiasm

Beret- type of cap

Corpulent- fat

Endurance- staying power; patience; stamina

Hackneyed- common and over-used

Jurisprudence- science or study of law

Novel- new; unusual

Placate- pacify; soothe; calm

Relegate- dismiss to a lower position

Taciturn- quiet; saying little

Zealot- fanatic

Bestial- behaving like a beast; brutal

Corrugated- highly folded

Enduring- lasting

Hallowed- worshipped; consecrated

Juxtapose- place next to

Novice- a beginner; tyro

Placebo- harmless medicine with no effect; dummy medicine

Remorse- re t; sorrow; contrition

Tactile- concerned with the sense of touch

Zenith- summit

Abate- reduce in intensity

Abjure- renounce; swear to refrain from something

Blandishment- words used to coax or flatter [blandish (v)]

Boor ill-mannered person [boorish (a)]

Cardinal- 1. high ranking church official; 2. major, important

Deliberate- 1. slow (a); 2. to think over (v); 3. on purpose (a)

Equivocation- speaking ambiguously [equivocate (v), equivocal (a)]

Feckless- feeble; helpless; lacking in initiative

Imperturbability- quality of being calm and not easily disturbed [imperturbable (a)]

Meretricious- falsely attractive; tawdry

Augury- prediction, looking for omens [auger (v)]

Boycott- refuse to have dealings with

Glib- slick; superficial esp. in speech

Incise- cut into [incision (n); incisive (a)]

Moralistic- concerned with morals [moralize (v)]

Ostracism- shunning; social isolation [ostracise (v)]

Penchant- inclination; leaning; tendency; predilection

Rarefy- make less dense [rarefaction (n)]

Repine- fret; be discontented

Stipulate- specify [stipulation (n)]

Diaphanous- transparent; thin and delicate

Feint- pretended attack; a move intended to deceive

Inured- hardened; habituated

Mettlesome- spirited [mettle (n)]

Recondite- obscure

Stygian- very dark

Touting- advertising; supporting [tout (v)]

Virtuosity- skill, expertise [virtuoso (n); virtuosi (n.pl)]

Volubility- excessive talkativeness [voluble (a)]

Caret- punctuation mark signifying omission

Contiguous- adjacent; touching; abutting [contiguity (n)]

Damp- (used of vibration) reduce in extent

Ellipsis- omission of essential words

Extirpation- wiping out; complete destruction [extirpate (v)]

Foppish- behaving or dressing like a dandy; excessively concerned with fashion

Gaffe- blunder; social mistake

Hortatory- encouraging; exhorting

Opprobrious- expressing at scorn [opprobrium (n)]

Recumbent- reclining; lying down

Ambidextrous- able to use both left and right hands equally well

Culpability- guilt [culpable = blameworthy]

Discernment- judgement; perceptiveness

Encomium- praise

Inveigle- coax; cajole; wheedle; entice

Minatory- threatening

Ossified- turned to bone; become rigid [ossification (n)]

Plumb- measure depth of (v); exact (a. slang)

Quintessential- most typical; the perfect example of [quintessence (n)]

Runic- mysterious; magical

Accretion- accumulation of matter; growth produced by adding from the outside

Anachronistic- occurring in the wrong time period [anachronism (n)]

Chronic- long lasting (often used for diseases in which case the opposite is acute)

Churlishness- rudeness; ill-mannered behaviour

Demagogue- mob leader (who appeals to base instincts) [demagogy/demagoguery (n)]

Effrontery- daring; audacity (has a negative connotation)

Idyll- story or incident in peaceful or ideal setting [idyllic (a)]
Assay- 1. try; 2. assess purity

Chauvinist- someone excessively patriotic [chauvinism (n)]

Discrete- separate; discontinuous (not to be confused with discreet - prudent; diplomatic]

Enlist- 1. sign up for the army; 2. obtain

Fabricated- made up; false; manufactured [fabricate (v); fabrication(n)]

Fulminate- 1. attack loudly in words; denounce thunderously; 2. explode noisily

Hawser- thick rope or cable

Jibe- a e with; complement; match up with (in British usage jibe means mock)

Peer- 1. an equal; 2. to stare at; 3. nobleman

Stickler- one who is strict about rules or details

Cloture- closure; terminating a debate by voting

Congruent- matching [congruency (n)]

Dally- waste time; flirt

Dissemble- avoid the truth

Dote- be excessively fond of [doting (a)]

Errant- 1. wandering; 2. wrong; 3. straying from accepted standards

Fervent- passionate

Stomach (v)- to tolerate

Synapse- junction between two nerve cells

Undercutting- offering a lower price; undermining

Arson- deliberate, criminal starting of fires

Carrion- dead flesh; carcasses

Intelligible- can be understood

Ironclad- cannot be altered; firm

Lint- fluff; soft material used to cover wounds

Pretension- assumed attitude of superiority; arrogance

Pundit- expert

Pyre- ceremonial fire

Syncopation- type of musical rhythm with missed beats

Abraded- worn away; eroded [abrade (v); abrasion (n)]

Apposite- fitting; suitable

Diatribe- tirade; violent denunciation; stream of criticism

Gerontocracy- government by the aged

Quisling- traitor

Sedulity- thoroughness; perseverance [sedulous (a)]

Seine- type of fishing net

Tender- to offer

Waffle- talk nonsense

Burlesque- 1. comic play; 2. lampoon

Exemplar- model type [exemplary (a)]

Homiletics- art of preaching and giving sermons

Impugn- challenge; question someone’s honour etc.

Incubus- encumbrance; nightmarish thing

Lope- run with long strides

Macerate- chop into tiny pieces

Nostrum- remedy

Saw- 1. tool for cutting; 2. wise saying

Sibyl- prophetess

Brook- 1. small stream; 2. tolerate

Emboss- decorate with a raised design

Eschew- shun; avoid

Limpid- transparently clear

Liturgy- form of worship

Nexus- connection

Odometer- instrument to measure distance covered

Purchase- 1. grip; 2. buy

Quotidian- daily; routine

Seminal- essential; formative

Agog- amazed; wide-eyed with enthusiasm

Amortize- pay off a debt in instalments

Curmudgeon- grumpy person

Dormancy- state of inactivity

Efficacy- effectiveness

Epithet- phrase used as a label or to express the essential nature of

Figurehead- symbol of power; nominal leader

Fracas- fight; disturbance

Jamb- door post

Milk- to squeeze; obtain by application of pressure

Chorales- simple hymns

Dissonance- discord; disagreement

Frieze- decorative border

Gist- essence; main point

Latent- hidden; real but undeveloped

Partiality- bias

Plodding- walking slowly and heavily; uninspired

Rekindle- relight; revive

Symphony- type of musical composition

Tarnished- made dull; spoil (reputation)

Compromised- 1. damaged or put in doubt (esp. of reputation); 2. reached at an agreement by giving up part of a claim

Drabness- dullness

Endow- give gift; provide with money etc.

Esoterica- obscure details

Falters- hesitates

Prattle- mindless talk

Prohibitive- 1. prohibiting; 2. exorbitantly expensive

Purist- conservative; one who insists on correct forms of language etc.

Quack- charlatan; fake

Taunt- mock; tease

Arresting (a)- attracting attention; striking

Barrage- extended gunfire to cover an attack; dam across river; deluge or information etc.

Ferrous- concerned with iron or its compounds

Manipulative- scheming

Orate- speak in a pompous manner

Psychosis- severe mental disturbance

Savour- enjoy

Table (v)- put down for future discussion

Underwrite- give guarantee, insure

Dissident- person who disagrees [dissidence (n)]

Enigmatic- puzzling [enigma (n)]

Foolhardy- reckless [foolhardiness (n)]

Homogeneity- evenness; uniformity

Personification- 1. represent something as a person; 2. a concrete example of

Plaque- 1. surface deposit on teeth or in artery etc.; 2. decorative plate or sign

Plausibility- believability [plausible (a)]

Resilience- resistance; ability to spring back [resilience (a)]

Trilogy- set of three (literary works etc.); tetralogy = set of four

Vagary- something unaccountable; freak

Aisle- corridor; passageway (esp. between rows of seats)

Discountenance- disallow

Imperative- must be obeyed

Indigent- poor; needy [indigence (n)]

Nadir- lowest point

Paranoia- mental state characterized by delusions or excessive fear

Prudence- caution; wisdom

Resuscitation- revival from unconsciousness [resuscitate (v)]

Shirk- avoid (esp. work)

Teetotalism- total abstinence from alcohol

Balm- soothing ointment or anything soothing [balmy (a)]

Calibrate- mark an accurate scale on a device

Cataclysmic- violently disruptive [cataclysm (n)]

Impropriety- inappropriate behaviour

Pith- centre; soft part of stem; essence

Primordial- present from the beginning of time

Reconnaissance- examination or survey conducted in advance [reconnoitre (v)]

Sinistral- left-handed (or counter-clockwise) [dextral - right handed]

Tempers- moderates

Undermine- subvert; attempt to overthrow
Antiquated- outdated; old fashioned

Choleric- easily angered

Diorama- model of a scene

Fecund- fertile

Inebriation- drunkenness; intoxication

Marshal- to gather together

Parity- equality

Profound- having deep meaning

Servile- overly submissive; grovelling

Usurp- take someone's position (usually by force)

Apathetic- indifferent; uninterested; lethargic

Chronicler- person who records historical information

Dirge- mournful song

Felicitous- apt

Ineffable- cannot be expressed in words

Marsupial- pouched mammal (like a kangaroo)

Parochial- narrow-minded; concerned only with local matters

Profundity- depth

Skeptical- doubting; not gullible

Utilitarian- useful

Apathy- lack of interest or emotion

Circuitous- indirect

Disapprobation- disapproval

Fervor- passion; enthusiasm

Inept- incompetent; unskilled; useless

Martinet- person who believes in strict discipline

Parody- a mockery; imitation for ridicule; spoof

Proletarian- member of the working class

Skirmish- minor battle

Utopian- a believer in an ideal world

Apocryphal- of doubtful origin

Circumlocution- using too many words; long-windedness

Discern- to distinguish one thing from another

Fickle- unpredictable; whimsical; easily swayed

Inertia- inactivity; lethargy

Masochist- person who intentionally inflicts pain on himself

Parry- ward off; avoid

Prolific- producing a lot

Sluggard- slow-moving; lethargic person

Vacillate- waver; hesitate

Appease- pacify; soothe; calm down; make peace with

Circumscribe- limit

Discord- disagreement

Finesse- skill

Inevitable- cannot be avoided

Matriarchy- society governed by women

Parsimonious- economical; frugal; thrifty

Proponents- promoters; supporters

Smelt- refine an ore

Vacuous- empty; silly; meaningless

Apprehensive- worried; fearful

Circumspect- cautious; considering all sides

Discordancy- cacophony; harshness; jarring

Fitful- not continuous; stopping and starting

Inexorable- relentless

Maverick- a loner

Parsimony- stinginess; frugality; cost-cutting

Prosaic- dull; boring; ordinary

Smorgasbord- a Swedish buffet of cold dishes

Vagrant- person wandering without a home

Arable- can be cultivated

Circumvent- avoid

Discrepancy- something which does not match up; inconsistency

Flagrant- clearly wrong

Inexpedient- not advisable

Meager- in short supply

Partisan- biased; one-sided; committed to one group

Proscribe- forbid

Solace- comfort for grief

Vapid- dull; uninspiring

Arbitrary- random; for no definite reason

Clairvoyant- psychic; mystic

Discriminate- to make a clear distinction; see the difference

Flamboyant- showy; ornate

Infallible- perfect; flawless; cannot make mistakes

Meander- wander from side to side

Pathos- evoking sadness or pity

Prosody- study of versification

Solicit- to ask for; seek

Variegated- multicoloured; speckled

Arcane- obscure; known only to a few people

Clamour- shout; scream

Discursiveness- long windedness; indirectness

Flaunt- show off; display in a showy manner

Infamous- famous for something bad

Mellow- soft; melodious; ripe

Patron- one who give support (usually financial)

Prostration- 1. lying face down; 2. be overcome with extreme weakness

Somnambulist- sleepwalker

Vehemence- violence; fervour; forcefulness

Archaic- ancient; outdated; old fashioned

Clandestine- secret; covert; stealthy

Disdain- contempt; strong dislike

Flippant- making jokes about serious matters

Infer- deduce; conclude

Menagerie- collection of animals

Patronize- condescend to; behave in an arrogant manner towards

Protagonist- main character in film, book, play etc.

Soothsayer- fortune-teller

Vehement- forceful

Archetype- classic example of

Clemency- mercy

Disinterested- unbiased

Flout- defy; reject

Ingénue- naïve, unsophisticated person

Mendacious- given to lying

Paucity- shortage

Protean- changeable

juvenile- (for a person who is)young or youthful ; immature

Venal- corrupt; can be bribed

Archives- collections of old records; place of storage of old documents

Cliché- overused expression; something unoriginal

Disparage- criticize; belittle

Flustered- worked-up; not calm

Ingrate- ungrateful person

Mercenary- concerned only with money

Peccadillo- minor weakness; trivial offence

Protégé- person under protection of, or guided by another

Soporific- inducing sleep

Veneer- surface coating
Colloquial- local and informal (used of language)

Dotard- foolish old man

Furrow- groove

Instigator- troublemaker; person who entices others to do something

Misnomer- wrong name

Percipient- perceptive; insightful

Quaff- drink down quickly

Staunch- loyal; faithful; dependable

Vilification- blackening someone's name

Atrophy- waste away from lack of use

Collusion- plotting and planning

Drawl- speak slowly with words running together

Furtive- hidden and secret

Insurgent- a rebel

Misogynist- hater of women

Perdition- damnation

Quagmire- marsh; bog

Stereotype- fixed image

Vindicate- prove right; remove blame

Attenuate- weaken

Commandeer- take possession of

Drivel- nonsense

Futile- useless; hopeless

Interminable- never-ending

Misrepresentation- deliberately deceiving

Peremptory- in a commanding manner

Quaint- picturesque

Stevedore- dockworker

Virtuoso- an accomplished musician

Augment- increase; make bigger

Complacent- self- satisfied; smug

Droll- dryly amusing

Galleon- ancient type of sailing ship

Intermittent- sporadic; irregular

Mitigate- lessen; make less severe

Perfidy- treachery

Quandary- dilemma; puzzle

Stifle- suppress

Virulent- dangerous; harmful

Auspicious- favourable; promising to turn out well

Compliant- easy to control; submissive

Drone- 1. monotonous noise (n); 2. to speak with no emotion (v); 3.male bee

Gambol- frolic; leap; bound

Intransigence- stubbornness

Modicum- small amount

Perfunctory- superficial; cursory

Quarantine- isolation to prevent the spread of disease

Stoic- known for fortitude; indifferent to pleasure or pain

Vital- essential; alive; important

Austere- severely plain

Concatenate- link together

Dubious- doubtful

Garble- distort; confuse; muddle

Intransigent- stubborn; unyielding

Momentous- very important

Peripatetic- nomadic; moving from place to place

Quarry- 1. something that is hunted; 2. mine for stone

Stoke- add fuel to; strengthen

Vitriolic- corrosive; strongly attacking

Aversion- a dislike of

Concatenation- linking into chains

Dupe- to fool someone

Garish- gaudy

Intrepid- brave

Monotonous- dull; unvarying

Peripheral- on the edge; not important

Querulous- always complaining

Stolid- impassive; dull; indifferent

Vivacity- liveliness; animation

Confound- confuse

Effigy- a model of a person

Gibbering- making meaningless noises

Ironic- iric;unexpected;seeming mockery in a situation or words

Myriad- in large numbers

Perspicacious- insightful; sharp; wise

Raucous- rough and unpleasant (of sounds)

Substantiate- give supporting evidence

Waive- surrender; give up

Begrudge- resent

Congeal- to solidify

Effusive- gushing; demonstrative

Glacial- hostile; unfriendly; cold; icy

Irrational- unreasonable; absurd

Navigable- suitable for sailing

Perspicacity- insight

Raze- destroy; demolish; tear down

Subterfuge- a trick

Wane- grow less

Beguile- mislead; lure

Congenital- present from birth

Egalitarianism- belief in equality

Goad- prod; urge

Irreproachable- cannot be criticized; perfect

Nebulous- vague

Pertinent- relevant

Rebuttal- denial

Subtle- not obvious

Wary- hesitant; cautious

Belabour- explain in unnecessary detail

Connoisseur- person with refined taste and good judgement

Grate (v)- 1. to annoy; aggravate; vex; 2. shred

Irrevocable- cannot be cancelled; unchangeable

Nefarious- wicked; immoral; disreputable

Peruse- read carefully

Recant- disclaim; retract statement

Subversive- rebellious; revolutionary

Wax- to increase; to grow

Beleaguer- besiege; attack

Consecrate- dedicate

Gratis- free of charge; without payment

Itinerant- nomadic; wandering from place to place

Negate- cancel; deny

Pervasive- spreading everywhere

Recapitulate- summarize

Succinct- concise

Waylay- accost; stop; approach; hinder

Belie- contradict

Consensus- the feeling of most people

Eloquent- fluent and persuasive in speech

Gratuitous- unwarranted

Jaded- tired; bored; worn out

Negligence- carelessness

Petrify- 1. terrify; 2. turn to stone

Receptacle- container; vessel; holder

Suffragist- someone who campaigns for voting rights

Weighty- serious

Belittle- to demean

Conspicuous- easily seen; prominent

Elucidate- make clear

Gravity- seriousness

Jargon- specialized language used by experts

Neologism- newly coined word

Petulant- sulky; peevish

Recluse- someone who cuts himself off from life

Supercilious- proud and haughty

Whelp- young dog

Bellicose- war-like; aggressive;quarrelsome

Consummate- complete; total; supremely good

Elusive- hard to pin down

gregarious- extroverted; sociable; outgoing;liking the company of other people

Jaundiced- cynical; pessimistic

Nettle- annoy

Phenomenon- an event or happening (plural: phenomena)

Recuperate- get better after illness

Superlative- extremely good; the best

Whet- sharpen

Belligerent- ag ssive; ready to fight

Contemporary- living or happening at the same time

Emaciated- very thin; withered

Gritty- coarse; granular

Jaunt- short pleasure trip

Niggardly- miserly; stingy

Philanthropy- charity; love of mankind

Red tape- formalities; paperwork; official procedure

Surly- grumpy; rude

Whimsical- capricious; changeable

Bemoan- complain about

Contrite- sorry

Emancipate- set free

Guffaw- sudden loud laughter

Jeopardize- put at risk; endanger

Nomadic- wandering from place to place

Philistine- uncultured person

Redolent- smelling of; giving off odours

Surreptitious- secret; sneaky; stealthy

Wilful- stubborn

Benevolent- kind
Articulate- clear; lucid; eloquent

Clientèle- customers

Disparity- an inequality

Fly-by-night- unreliable; disreputable

Inimical- hostile

Mercurial- volatile; changeable

Pedant- person who insists on strict adherence to rules or narrow learning

Protocol- procedure; code of behaviour

Sparse- spare; bare; meagre

Venerate- revere; worship

Artifice- deception; trickery

Coalesce- come together; merge

Dispassionate- neutral; objective

Forensic- concerned with argument or debate (esp. for legal evidence)

Innate- inherited; inborn

Merge- come together

Pedestrian- common; mundane; banal

Provincial- unsophisticated; narrow-minded

Specious- false

Venial- minor; unimportant

Artisan- craftsman

Coddle- pamper; fuss over; indulge

Disseminating- circulating; broadcasting; spreading (information)

Fortitude- bravery

Innocuous- harmless; inoffensive

Metaphorically- symbolically; figuratively

Peerless- without equal

Prudent- cautious; wise

Speckled- spotted; freckled; dotted

Veracity- truthfulness

Ascetic- without luxuries; severely simple

Coercion- force

Diurnal- active in daytime

Fortuitous- happening by chance

Innovate- create; introduce something new

Meticulous- very careful; painstaking

Pejorative- derogatory

Puerile- childish

Sporadic- not continuous; intermittent

Verbose- talkative; long-winded; rambling

Assiduous- thorough; diligent

Cogent- lucid; well argued

Divert- 1. entertain; 2. distract; 3. cause a detour

Fractious- irritable; difficult to control

Inscrutable- mysterious; impenetrable

Mettle- courage; bravery; valour

Pellucid- transparently clear

Punctilious- paying attention to small details

Spurious- false

Verbosity- using too many words

Assuage- to calm

Cogitate- think over something; ponder

Docile- gentle and easily lead

Fraudulent- fake; false

Insentient- unfeeling

Milieu- environment

Pensive- in a thoughtful mood; thinking deeply

Purloin- steal

Stagnant- still; not moving

Vertigo- dizziness

Astute- perceptive; sharp-witted

Collage- picture made from fragments of other pictures

Dogmatic- having stubbornly held opinions

Frivolous- not serious

Insipid- dull; bland; boring

Mire- swamp; muddy ground

Penury- poverty

Pusillanimous- cowardly

Staid- dull; sober; serious

Vestigial- not developed

Asylum- place of refuge or safety

Collate- arrange in order

Dolt- stupid person

Frugal- economical; not wasting anything

Instigate- to start; provoke

Misanthrope- hater of the rest of mankind

Perceptive- observant

Pyromania- compulsion to start fires

Stanza- section of a poem

Vignette- small sketch

Surreptitiously- secretly; furtively; stealthily

Wily- cunning

Interregnum- interval between reigns or governments

Nugatory- of minor significance; futile

Sinecure- job which pays salary but requiring little effort

Anodized- electroplated; coated with thin layer of metal

Aphoristic- expressed tersely [aphorism (n) = short statement; maxim]

Canonical- orthodox [canon (n) = set of accepted works]

Commensurate- equal in significance

Dexterity- skill, esp. with hands [dexterous (a)]

Extant- still in existence (opposite of extinct)

Impugned- challenged; called into question

Probity- uprightness; honesty

Raconteur- person who relates a story

Solicitous- kindly; expressing care and concern

Amalgamate- join; consolidate [amalgamation (n)]

Baleful- evil

Coerce- force [coercion (n); coercing (a)]

Inchoate- undeveloped; nascent

Iniquitous- evil; unjust [iniquity (n)]

Libertine- dissolute person; prodigal

Millinery- hats and hat-making

Natty- neat; dapper; smart

Occluded- obscured; blocked

Sidereal- of or related to stars

Avaricious- greedy(for money)

Extirpate- wipe out totally

Halcyon- peaceful and happy; calm (esp. of summer weather)

List (v)- 1. to lean to one side; 2. to write in order

Maudlin- sad; sentimental; inclined to weep

Refulgent- glowing; radiant

Subliminal- below the threshold of consciousness

Testiness- irritability; irascibility [testy (a)]

Vituperate- attack bitterly

Whittle- 1. carve with knife; 2. reduce step by step Atheist-
person who does not believe in God
Contrition- sorrow and repentance

Embezzle- defraud; steal

Guile- cunning; craftiness

Jingoistic- extremely patriotic; nationalistic

Nonchalance- an appearance of indifference; calm and composed

Phlegmatic- calm; imperturbable

Redress- put right something that was wrong

Caricature- ridicule (v); cartoon intended to ridicule (n)

Colander- bowl with holes used to drain vegetables etc.

Cumbersome- bulky; difficult to carry [encumber = to burden]

Dispatch- 1. send (v); 2. speed; celerity (n)

Epistemology- theory of knowledge

Froward- stubborn; wayward; disobedient

Supine- lying flat on one’s back

Throwback- exhibiting primitive, or ancestral, traits

Untoward- unexpected

Verisimilar- true to life; giving the appearance of reality

Alleviated- made less severe [alleviation (n); alleviate (v)]

Apostrophe- 1. punctuation mark; 2. appeal to someone not present (a figure of speech)

Centurion- Roman soldier (commander of a company of 100 soldiers)

Emollient- softening (a); something which softens (n)

Fusillade- long burst of gunfire

In-errancy- infallibility; inability to make mistakes [inerrant (a)]

Mince- 1. chop into small pieces; 2. walk with tiny steps, 3. speak in an affected manner

Palpate- medical term meaning to examine with the hands

Platitude- unoriginal, obvious saying

Quibble- 1. (v) to argue about minor matters; to play on words when finding fault; 2. (n) a minor verbal point in an argument

Apprehension- slight fear; sense of something unfavourable

Conniving- cunning; scheming [connive (v)]

Derision- mockery [deride (v)]

Epigram- short, witty saying

Lassitude- lack of energy; weariness

Pedantic- over-insistent on matters of book-learning [pedant (n)]

Phenomenology- branch of science concerned with things as they are perceived; not directly derived from theory

Precipitate- 1. hurried (a); 2. insoluble product of a reaction in chemistry (n), 3. to instigate or speed up an action (v)

Renege- go back on promise or retract statement

Apprehension- slight fear; sense of something unfavourable

Armada- fleet of ships

Dawdler- slow person who falls behind others [dawdle (v)]

Dross- something worthless; impurities left after refining

Expiate- atone; make amends for

Hack- 1. chop roughly; 2. person who writes to earn money, 3. hired horse

Prone- 1. vulnerable to; 2. horizontal

Propensity- tendency; inclination

Scabbard- cover for a sword

Skiff- small boat

Umbrage- 1. shadow; 2. offence; sense of injury

Dilettantism- dabbling esp. in the arts [dilettante (n) = person who dabbles]

Enervate- weaken

Malevolent- having evil intentions [malevolence (n)]

Neophyte- new convert; tyro

Panegyric- speech praising someone; laudatory words

Presage- forewarn of; indicate

Serration- jagged edge

Slight- 1. minor (a); 2. perceived insult (v) and (n)

Tare- 1. weed; 2. allowance made for container when weighing

Unprepossessing- unattractive

Aberration- deviation from the normal

Cant- insincere talk

Disinter- dig up [opposite inter = bury]

Façade- 1. front elevation of building, 2. false appearance or demeanor

Impeding- hindering [impede (v); impediment (n)]

Lacuna- gap; missing part [plural = lacunae]

Monolithic- united in purpose; forming a single unit

Pied- multicoloured

Roster- list of names

Seemly- appropriate (of behaviour); decorous

Analogue- 1. something similar; 2. output proportional to input (engineering)

Coda- piece of music at the end of a musical work; finale; final part of document

Commingle- mix

Equivocal- ambiguous; open to interpretation [equivocate (v), equivocation (n)]

Fallible- capable of making mistakes [fallibility (n)]

Hallow- respect; worship

Indigence- poverty

Papyrus- material used for writing on before paper was invented

Pique- 1. annoyance (n); 2. to stimulate interest; to annoy (v)

Sap- 1. liquid inside plants (n); 2. to drain; to undermine (v); 3. a fool (n)

Arbitrator- mediator; person appointed to judge a dispute [arbitrate (v)]

Descry- to see (esp. at a distance); catch sight of

Facetious- not intended to be taken seriously

Indecorous- unseemly; inappropriate (of behaviour)

Proliferate- grow and spread [proliferation (n)]

Scotch (v)- to prevent; stop; disable

Strut- 1. supporting rod (n); 2. to walk in an arrogant manner; show off (v)

Toy (v)- to play with

Usury- lending money at high interest rates

Wag (n)- a witty person

Atavism- reappearance of ancestral traits; re ssion [atavistic (a)]

Filibuster- delaying tactics

Gambit- opening move; transaction

Mitigation- making less severe [mitigate (v)]

Obligate- compulsory

Predilection- leaning; interest; talent

Propitiate- appease; try to gain favour [propitiation (n)]

Staunch- to stop

Travesty- parody; ridiculous error

Waft- drift smoothly (v); whiff; smell (n)

Forage- search for food

Lumber- 1. walk in an ungainly way; 2. timber (wood)

Muse- 1. think; meditate (v); 2. a source of inspiration (n) [in mythology, a goddess who gives inspiration]

Prescience- foreknowledge

Prune- 1. to trim; 2. a dried plum

Ready- (used of wit) quick

Resolve- firmness (n)

Squalid- dirty and demeaning

Sullied- made dirty or impure [opposite unsullied; sully (v)]

Veneration- worship; respect [venerable (a), venerate (v)]

Demur- object; hesitate to accept

Duplicity- cunning; deception; double dealing

Exigency- urgent matter; pressing need

Expostulate- offer strong objections; remonstrate

Gossamer- delicate; filmy; like gauze

Inefficacious- ineffective

Pine- 1. type of ever en tree; 2. grieve

Prudish- narrow-minded; excessively concerned with morals [prudery (n), prude (n)]

Quixotic- impractically idealistic

Stipple- cover with dots of paint etc.

Abrasion- 1. damage to skin caused by scraping; 2. process of scraping or rubbing [abrade (v)]

Adumbrate- outline; indicate

Cognitive- concerned with thinking or perceiving [cognition (n)]

Deign- condescend

Fervid- passionate

Gall- 1. bitterness (bad feeling); 2. confidence; 3. abnormal growth on a plant

Levee- 1. raised bank of a river; 2. morning reception held by a monarch

Preternatural- unnatural; abnormal

Quell- suppress

Score (n)- written form of music

Abut- to adjoin

Consternation- worry and concern

Gavel- judge’s hammer

Lien- right to sell property held as a security; legal hold on job etc.

Parenthesis- remarks deviating from the main point [parentheses are round brackets in punctuation]

Sinewy- vigorous; having well-developed muscles [a sinew is a tendon]

Steep (v)- to soak in water

Tamp- to plug; press loose matter down tightly (e.g. pack explosives into a hole)

Venturing- 1. hazarding; risking; putting forward; 2. going somewhere [venturesome means courageous or willing to take risks]

Wry- 1. twisted or bent to one side; 2. dryly humorous

Arduous- hard

Decimated- kill or destroy a large part of (originally one tenth)

Fledge- 1. grow feathers; 2. leave nest [fledgling (n) = an inexperienced person or a baby bird]

Gouge- cut or dig out

Picayune- insignificant; of little value

Riveting- fascinating [to rivet literally means to fix metal plates using metal pins]

Soliloquy- solo speech

Supplicant- person who requests or begs for something [supplicate (v)]

Transcendental- supernatural; going beyond normal experience [transcendent (a)]

Veritable- true; genuine [verity (n)]

Condescension- talking down to someone [condescending (a)]

Divest- remove; take off

Eddy- circular current

Epaulette- shoulder decoration

Fallacy- wrong idea [fallacious (a)]

Fringe- 1. decorative border with tassels (n); 2. to form an edge (v)

Leaven- to make light; modify; cause bread to rise using yeast etc.

Patronize- 1. to talk down to; condescend; 2. to be a customer of

Prominent- 1. eminent; 2. protruding; 3. obvious

Statute- law [statutory (a)]

Antipathy- hatred

Aver- affirm

Expatiate- speak or write at at length

Flag (v)- 1. to lose energy; 2. to signal

Flail- 1. tool used to thresh grain; 2. to thresh (separate grain from chaff); 3. to wave arms about wildly

Indicted- accused (of crime)

Loll- laze around; hang out (when used of the tongue)

Malign- slander

Secure (v)- 1. to fix firmly; 2. to obtain

Talon- long pointed nail or claw

Abeyance- state of inactivity; disuse

Disarm- 1. take away weapons; 2. win over to one’s side [disarming (a)]

Elaborate- 1. complex and detailed (a); 2. to expand on (v)

Foment- 1. stir up; 2. bathe with hot liquids (medical)

Jockeying- manoeuvring; struggling to get ahead of others [jockey (v)]

Minutiae- small details

Rue- re t [rueful (a)]

Somatic- concerned with the body

Stinting- holding back; limiting the supply (of supplies/money etc.) [stint (v)]

Temperate- moderate

Allure- 1. attraction (n); 2. to attract (v)

Caulk- treat with substance such as tar to make water-tight

Conscript- 1. person enlisted compulsorily into the armed forces; 2. (v) to enlist compulsorily

Desultory- aimless; inconsistent in effort

Elegy- poem concerned with death; praise of a dead person

Fallow- uncultivated

Forbearing- tolerant [forbear (v); forbearance (n)]

Hegemony- political domination; complete authority

Improbity- lack of honesty or integrity

Qualm- hesitation or fear