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Nouns

Kinds of Nouns:



Common Nouns - They are names of people (e.g. man), things (e.g. books), animals (e.g. monkey) and places (church).

Proper Nouns - They are special names of people (e.g. George ), things (e.g. Financial Times), animals (e.g. King Kong) and places (e.g. Paris). A proper noun begins with a Capital Letter.

Abstract Nouns - An abstract noun is the name of something that we can only think of or feel but can- not see (e.g. friendship).

Collective Nouns - They are names used for a num- ber of people, things or animals together and treated as one. For example: a group of friends, a bunch of bananas, a litter of puppies.

Countable and Uncountable Nouns - Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted (e.g. trees). Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be counted. (e.g. smoke).

Nouns have four genders:

1. Masculine Gender - The masculine gender is used for all males. Example: boy, man

2. Feminine Gender - The feminine gender is used for all females. Example: girl, woman

3. Common Gender - The common gender is used where the noun can be both male and female. Example: cousin, friend, person, child, student

4. Neuter Gender - The neuter gender is used for things which have no life or sex. Example: table, chair.

Singular and Plural Nouns - A noun that shows only one person (e.g. a girl), thing (e.g. pencil), animal (e.g. tiger) or place (e.g. market) is called a singular noun. A noun that shows more than one person (e.g. girls), thing (e.g. pencils), animal (e.g. tigers) or place (e.g. markets) is called a plural noun

Plural nouns are formed.
  • By adding -s. 'es' to nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh and -x.
    beach beaches
    peach peaches
    branch branches
    speech speeches
    ditch ditches
    watch watches
    boss bosses
    glass glasses
    bus buses
    lens lenses
    chorus choruses
    pass passes
    brush brushes
    fish fishes
    bush bushes
    dish dishes
    wish wishes
    box boxes
    hoax hoaxes
    fax faxes
    six sixes
    fox foxes
    tax taxes
  • By adding 'es' to nouns ending in -o.
    buffalo buffaloes
    potato potatoes
    cargo cargoes
    mosquito mosquitoes
    echo echoes
    tomato tomatoes
  • By adding 's' to nouns ending in -o.
    banjo banjos
    patio patios
    bamboo bamboos
    photo photos
    radio radios
    video videos
  • By replacing 'y' with -ies.
    baby babies
    lorry lorries
    fly flies
    navy navies
    hobby hobbies
    puppy puppies
  • By adding 's' to nouns ending in -y.
    boy boys
    key keys
    day days
    toy toys
    donkey donkeys
    turkey turkeys
  • By replacing 'f' or 'fe' with -ves.
    calf calves
    loaf loaves
    half halves
    self selves
    life lives
    wife wives
  • By adding 's' to nouns ending in -f or -fe.
    chief chiefs
    hoof hoofs
    dwarf dwarfs
    reef reef
    gulf gulfs
    roof roofs
  • By changing vowels.
    foot feet
    louse lice
    goose geese
    tooth teeth
    mouse mice
    woman women
  • Some nouns have same words for plural and singular.
    aircraft aircraft
    music music
    crossroads crossroads
    series series
    furniture furniture
    sheep sheep
  • Exceptional plural.
    child children
    ox oxen
    crisis crises
    passer-by passers-by
    mouse mice
    radius radii

VERB

Verbs are words that show action. Every sentence must have a verb. A verb is not always one word. It may be made up of more than one word

Auxiliary verbs

The words: am, is, are, was, and were are verbs. They are forms of the verb 'to be'. They are helping verbs called auxiliary verbs.

If the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb must be singular. If the subject of a sentence is plural, the verb must be plural. The verb must agree with the subject in number.

Examples of 'subjects' and 'verbs' being singular:
The man is sleeping.
She goes to the market.
The student does his homework every day.
The train has arrived.
'Man', 'she', 'student' and 'train' are known as subjects.The subjects are all singular.The verbs 'is','goes', 'does' and 'has' are all singular too.

Examples of 'subjects' and 'verbs' being plural:
The men are sleeping.
They go to the market.
The students do their homework every day.
The trains have arrived.
'Men', 'they', 'students' and 'trains' are known as subjects. The subjects are all plural. The verbs 'are','go', 'do' and 'have' are all plural too.

Other singular and plural subjects that take on singular and plural verbs:
Subjects with words like 'each', 'every', 'any', 'no','none' and 'nobody' take on the singular verbs.
Examples: Each student is given a pen.
Every child is happy watching the show.
Nobody is allowed to walk on the grass.

Uncountable nouns always take singular verbs.
Examples: Rice is eaten in many countries.
There is oil on the floor.
Salt is added to make the food taste better.
Subjects with words like 'both', 'all', 'many', 'some','several' and 'a number of' take on a plural verb.
Examples: Both of you have to come home early.
All of us want to be happy.
Some of my friends are female.

Two or more subjects joined by 'and' always take a plural verb.
Examples:
My brother and his friends like to play football.
His father and mother are watching tele vision.


Transitive and intransitive verbs

The verb which needs an object to make its meaning clear or complete is called a transitive verb.
Example: He feeds a cat.
The word 'cat' is called the object of the verb 'feeds'.
The object can be a noun or a pronoun.
The intransitive verb does not need an object but the meaning is clear or complete.
Example:
He ran.
The verb 'ran' does not need an object.
She reads every day. (No object)
He eats quickly. (No object)


The Finite verb

The finite verb changes with the subject. The subject is the person, thing, animal or place we refer to. When the subject is in the first or second person or is plural, the verb does not change. When the subject is in the third person or is singular, the verb changes from, say, 'eat' to 'eats'. The verb 'eat' is a finite verb. Every sentence must have a finite verb. Other usage of verbs to remember:

  • When "and" is used to join two nouns or pronouns together, the verb is usually in the plural.
    Examples: Beef and mutton are meat.
    He and I were classmates.
  • When we use two nouns for the same person or thing, the verb should be in the singular.
    Examples: My friend and classmate is very helpful.
    Bread and butter is his only food.
  • When we use two nouns for the same person, we use the article 'the' only once and the verb should be in the singular.
    Example:The shopkeeper and owner of the shop is my uncle.
  • When we refer to two different persons, we use the article twice and the verb must be in the plural.
    Example:The shopkeeper and the owner of the shop are my good friends.
  • When we join two nouns and treat them as a whole, the verb is in the singular.
    Example:Bread and butter is his usual breakfast.
  • When a noun is a quantity or an amount, it is treated as a whole and the verb is in the singular.
    Examples:Ten kilometers is not a long way to travel.
    Nowadays, fifty dollars is not a lot of money.

    A verb is used in different forms as follow:
  • Simple Present Tense eat
  • Simple Past Tense ate
  • Present Participle is eating
  • Past Participle has eaten
  • Future Tense will eat

THE PRESENT TENSE

    The Present Simple

    Used for a habitual or repeated action, that is, for something that we do always, every day, often, usually, etc.
    Example: He plays football on Sundays.



    a. Used for a general truth or a fact, that is, for something that is true.
    Example: Night follows day.

    b. Used for something or an action happening now.
    Example: See how she walks.

    c. Used instead of the future tense.
    Example: He arrives tomorrow.

    d. Used instead of the past tense, to make some thing look more real.
    Example: The tiger comes; it catches the boy.

    e. Used instead of the present perfect tense.
    Example: We hear that the king is dead.

    f. Used to introduce a quotation, that is, to repeat words spoken or written by someone else.
    Example: Shakespeare says: "Neither a bor rower nor a lender be."
  1. The Present Continuous Tense

    Used to show that something is still happening, that is, an action is still going on at the time of speaking. It shows that the action is not yet complete.
    Example: He is writing a letter.



    a. Used instead of the future tense. We usually say the time when this future action will take place
    Example: He is going to Japan next week.

    b. Used to use the phrase 'is going' which means 'about to'.
    Example: It is going to rain.

    c. Used to show an action which happens many times. We often use 'always' with this expression.
    Example: He is always getting into trouble
  2. The Present Perfect Tense

    Used to show an action which has just been completed or a past action when the time is not mentioned. The action may be a recent one or it may be one which happened a long time ago.
    Example: I have finished reading the book.
    There have been many changes in this country.



    a. Used for an action that has been going on from the past until now, that is, something that happened in the past but is going on still.
    Example: I have lived here for ten years.

    b. Used often with 'just', 'already', 'recently', 'never', 'yet' and (in questions) with 'ever'
    Example: I have already told them about the plan.
    She has never replied to my letter.
    Have you ever been to London?

    c. Used often to answer questions which contain a verb in the Present Perfect tense.
    Example: Where have you been? I have been to London to see the Queen.
    What have you lost? I have lost all my money.
  3. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

    Used for an action that had been going on in the past before another action occurred in the past.
    Example: She had been cooking when we visited her

    THE FUTURE TENSE

    The Future Tense is used to show some action or happening in the future. Future Simple + 'Going To"

    1. Simple Future Tense

      is used to show future action or that something will happen in the future.
      Example: We will complete the work tomorrow.
      'Going to' is used to express a future action that has been planned in advance.
      Example: We are going to Japan next week.
    2. Future Continuous Tense

      is used to show continuous action at some future time.
      Example: I shall be seeing both of you tomorrow.
    3. Future Perfect Tense

      is used for an action which will have finished by some future time or date which is mentioned or before another action has begun.
      Example: I shall have finished this job by seven o'clock.
      I shall have finished this job by the time you arrive.
    4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

      This continuous tense is formed with 'shall/will have been' + a present particle.
      Example: I shall have been married for exactly ten years next Saturday.

    Exercise


    Write the correct form of the verb in the brackets:
    1) I -----to the cinema yesterday.( to go)
    2) Peter ----- 13 tomorrow. ( to be)
    3) My friend----- to music every evening.( to listen)
    4) They ------ their car. It looks new again.( to clean)
    5) Listen! Mr Jones-------- the piano.( to play)
    6) She ------- her left arm two weeks ago. (to break)
    7) We -------- a test now. ( to write)
    8) Danny ---------- a book this evening. ( to read)
    9) Ken and Emily often------- lunch at school. ( to have)
    10) He ---------- his money. So he can't buy this hamburger.( to lose)

    Click Me For Answers
      1.went   2. will be   3. listens   4. have cleaned   5. is playing   6. broke   7. are writing   8.is going to read   9. have   10. has lost


    ADJECTIVES

    An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun, that is, about a person, an animal, a thing or a place.


    For example:
    She is a pretty girl.
    A giraffe has a long neck.
    The table is round.
    That is an old temple.

    There are various kinds of adjectives:

    1. An adjective which tells us about the quality of the noun.
    Example: the blue sky, a big house, a square table, a cold morning.

    2. An adjective which tells us about the quatity of the noun.
    Example: The zoo has many animals.
    The pen has not much ink left.

    3. An adjective which tells us about the ownership of the noun.
    Example: That is my dog.
    Those are their bicycles.

    4. An adjective which poses question in an 'interrogative' manner.
    Example: Which school do you go to?
    Whose car is this?

    5. An adjective which specifies a noun.
    Example: This boy is a member of the club.
    That girl is my sister.

    Adjectives which end in '-ing',
    e.g. an interesting film, an amazing player, an annoying habit,

    Adjectives which end in '-ed,
    e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners, improved version,

    Comparison of adjectives

    We use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns.
    For example: His house is as big as my house.

    We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns.
    For example: His house is bigger than my house.

    We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns.
    For example: His house is the biggest in the neighbourhood.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    bold bolder boldest
    deep deeper deepest
    near nearer nearest
    rich richer richest
    tall taller tallest
    careful more careful most careful
    enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable
    forgetful more forgetful most forgetful
    useful more useful most useful

    ADVERBS

    An adverb adds more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.


    I called you last night. (called=verb; last night=adverb)
    Your dress is very beautiful.(beautiful=adjective; very=adverb)
    The rain stopped quite suddenly.(suddenly=adverb; quite=adverb)

    Types of Adverbs



    Adverb of Time -

    This shows when an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question "When?" It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.


    Example: I phoned you yesterday.
    I saw her walking along the river last week.

    Adverb of Place-

    This shows where an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question "Where?" It is placed after the verb.


    Example: I live here.
    He fell down.

    Adverb of Manner -

    This shows how an action or something is done. It answers the question "How?" It is usually placed just after the verb.


    Example: She sleeps soundly.
    He drives quickly.

    Adverb of Degree or Quantity -

    This answers the questions, "To what degree?" or "How much?" It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb.


    Example: It is too dark for us to see anything.
    Last night it rained very heavily..

    Adverb of Frequency -

    This answers the question "How often?"


    Example: He will never have finished in time.
    We always go to school by bus.

    Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No)
    Example: yes, surely, certainly, indeed, by all means, no, not at all, by no means.

    Interrogative Adverb (Question)
    Example: When? Where? How? Why? How much/often?

    Relative Adverb:

    when, where, how, why These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs; but they are not questions.


    Example: The time when he arrived.
    The scene where the accident occurred.
    He knows how to do it.
    The reason why he left.

    Comparison of Adverbs

    Similar to the comparison of adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison - the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Most adverbs which end in '-ly' form the Comparative with 'more' and the Superlative with 'most'



    Positive Comparative Superlative
    comfortablymore comfortablymost comfortably
    happilymore happilymost happily
    kindly more kindly most kindly
    loudly more loudly most loudly
    noisily more noisily most noisily


    Exercise

    Choose the most suitable adverb to fill each blank: (angrily, enough, never, outside, yesterday ,down, last week, often, quickly, rarely ,always, just, nearly, online, unusually )



    1. She left _____ for the university where she is doing a degree course.
    2. We are standing _____ his house waiting for him.
    3. He told us _____ not to walk on the grass.
    4. I am not strong _____ to help him carry that box.
    5. She will _____ be happy in that job.
    6. _____, I saw him walking to the church.
    7. My father is _____ late for work.
    8. He drove _____ to avoid being late.
    9. I _____ play badminton with my sister.
    10. This is the place where he fell _____.
    11. It took _____ two hours to get here.
    12. They were _____ very friendly.
    13. He has _____ strong hands.
    14. She has _____ completed her degree course.
    15. This dictionary went _____ in 2003.

    Click Me For Answers
     1.yesterday   2.outside   3.angrily   4.enough   5.never   6.Last week  7.rarely   8.quickly   9.often   10.down.   11nearly   12.always   13.unusually   14.just   15.online


    THE ARTICLES


    Definite Article - 'The'
    Indefinite Article - 'A' or 'An'

    'A' is used:



    Before a word which begins with a consonant.
    Example: a woman

    Before a singular, countable noun.
    Example: a banana

    When we mention something for the first time.
    Example: I saw a dog.

    Before a word with a long sound of 'u'.
    Example: a university, a uniform, a useful book,a European,

    Before the word one.
    Example: a one-way street, a one-eyed man, a one-year course, a one-day holiday, etc.

    'An' is used:



    Before a noun which begins with a vowel.
    Example: an apple.

    Before a word which begins with a vowel sound or a
    silent 'h'.

    Example: an hour, an honest man, an heir, an honour,an honourable man, etc

    Before a singular, countable noun which begins with a vowel or silent 'h'.
    Example: an orange

    'The' is used:



    1. When the same thing or person mentioned again, that is, a particular thing or person.
    Example: I bought an orange. The orange is sweet..

    2. When there is only one such thing.
    Example: the earth, the sun, the moon.

    3. Before the names of famous buildings, etc.
    Example: The Eiffel Tower, The Great Wall of China.

    4. When a singular noun is used to point out a whole class, race, group, etc.
    Example: The bear is a strong animal.

    5. Before the special names of rivers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges, groups of islands, certain organizations, political parties, and countries such as the U.S.A., the U.K., the U.S.S.R. and the U.A.E., The Nile, The Dead Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The Himalayas, The United Nations, The Republican Party, etc.

    6. Before the names of holy or important books.
    Example: The Koran, The Bible.

    7. Before an adjective when the noun is understood.
    Example: The poor need help.

    Articles are not used:


    1. Before the name of a person:
    Example: I am a fan of Michael Jackson.(not A or The Michael Jackson)

    2. Before the name of a place, town, country,street, or road.
    Example: Barcelona is a beautiful city.(not A or The Barcelona)

    3. Before names of materials.
    Example: Gold is found in Australia.(not A or The gold)

    4. Before abstract nouns used in a general sense.
    Example: We love all beauty.(not a beauty or the beauty)

    Exercise

    Fill each blank with 'a', 'an', 'the' or leave it blank.
    1. He left _____ home without informing anyone.
    2. There is _____ box of sweets on _____ table.
    3. Do you need _____ degree in Economics or ____ degree in finance to be a better manager?
    4. When we arrived, she went straight to _____ kitchen and started to prepare ___ meal for us.
    5. He has _____ cut on his leg and _____ bruise on _____ chin.
    6. Mt. Everest is _____ highest mountain in _____ world.
    7. Switch off _____ air-conditioner please. I have _____ cold.
    8. We reached _____ top of _____ hill during _____ afternoon.
    9. Do you like _____ weather here? Isn't it too hot during _____ day but it is very cold at night?
    10. _____ attempt has been made to collect funds to start _____ public library in _____ town where I live.


    Click Me For Answers
     1.--   2.a, the   3.a,a   4.the,a   5.a, a, the   6.the,the  7.the,a   8.the,a, the   9.the,the,   10.an, a, the


    Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

    Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

    Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

    Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.



    For example:

    Direct speech
    "I'm going to the cinema", he said.

    Indirect speech
    He said he was going to the cinema.

    Tense change
    As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):

    Direct speech Indirect speech


    Present simple Past simple
    She said, "It's cold." She said it was cold.


    Present continuous Past continuous
    She said, "I'm teaching English online." She said she was teaching English online.


    Present perfect simple Past perfect simple
    She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." She said she had been on the web since 1999.


    Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
    She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." She said she had been teaching English for seven years.


    Past simple Past perfect
    She said, "I taught online yesterday." She said she had taught online yesterday.


    Past continuous Past perfect continuous
    She said, "I was teaching earlier." She said she had been teaching earlier.


    Past perfect Past perfect
    She said, "The lesson had already started he arrived." arrived.NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he when


    Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
    She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." minutes. NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five

    Modal verb forms also sometimes change:

    will would
    She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow."She said she would teach English online tomorrow.


    can could
    She said, "I can teach English online." She said she could teach English online.


    must had to
    She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." She said she had to have a computer to teach English online.


    shall should
    She said, "What shall we learn today?" She asked what we should learn today.


    may might
    She said, "May I open a new browser?" She asked if she might open a new browser.


    exact quote Indirect speech (not exact)
    "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. She said next week's lesson is on reported speech


    Today Indirect speech
    "Today's lesson is on presentations."She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations


    Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.

    Note-Time change If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.


    Expressions of time if reported on a different day
    this (evening) ::: that (evening)
    today ::: yesterday
    these (days) ::: those (days)
    now ::: then
    (a week) ago ::: (a week) before
    last weekend ::: the weekend before last / the previous weekend
    here ::: there
    next (week) ::: the following (week)
    tomorrow ::: the next/following day

    In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).

    Pronoun change
    In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
    For example:
    "I teach English online." She said she teaches English online.

    Reporting Verbs
    Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
    We use asked to report questions:-
    For example: I asked Prema what time the lesson started.

    We use told with an object.
    For example: Sasikala told me she felt tired.
    Note - Here me is the object.

    We usually use said without an object.
    For example: Sophy said she was going to teach online.

    If said is used with an object we must include to ;
    For example: Romy said to me that she'd never been to China.

    Note - We usually use told.
    For example: Aruna told me that she'd never been to China.

    There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.
    These include:-
    accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.

    Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.
    For example:
    He asked me to come to the party:-
    He invited me to the party.
    He begged me to come to the party.
    He ordered me to come to the party.
    He advised me to come to the party

    Exercise

    Rewrite the following in the Reported Speech.
    1. He said, "I have eaten my lunch."
    2. She said, "I am doing a degree at the university"
    3. The teacher said to the class, "Pay attention."
    4. My mother said to me, "Buy some bananas for me."
    5. My father said to me, "Don't waste your money."
    6. She said to me, "Where is the hospital?."
    7. My friend said to me. "Don't be late tomorrow."
    8. He asked me, "When will the train arrive?"
    9. His teacher said to him, "Try to do it by your self."
    10. She asked me, "What are your favorite online games?"

    Click Me For Answers

    1. He said that he had eaten his lunch.
    2. She said that she was doing a degree at the university.
    3. The teacher told the class to pay attention.
    4. My mother told/asked me to buy some bananas.
    5. My father told me not to waste my money. .
    6. She asked me where the hospital is.
    7. My friend asked me not to be late tomorrow.
    8. He asked me when the train will arrive.
    9. His teacher told him to try to do it by himself. .
    10. She asked me what my favorite online games are.

    Auxiliary verbs

    Auxiliary verbs are sometimes called helping verbs because they are needed to form many of the tenses. The most used auxiliary verbs are the verbs to be, to do and to have. For example: the auxiliary to do is needed to ask questions in the present and past simple tenses. To be is needed for the present and past continuous, and all the passive forms. The auxiliary to have is used in the present and past perfect tenses. Here are some examples of the common auxiliary


    verbs in action:
    Do you like German food?
    Does your mother speak English?
    Did you come to school yesterday?
    Why are you talking?
    You should be listening to me!
    I was having a bath when you called!
    A new road is being built behind the school.

    Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the passive.


    The verb "be"

    The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:



    Simple Present:
    I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are

    Simple Past:
    I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were

    Past Participle:
    been

    You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)



    Progressive Forms

    Present Progressive:
    He is playing football.

    Past Progressive:
    He was playing football.

    Present Perfect Progressive:
    He has been playing football.

    Past Perfect Progressive:
    He had been playing football.

    Passive
    Simple Present/Past:
    The house is/was built.

    Present/Past Perfect:
    The house has/had been built.

    Future I: The house will be built.

    "be" as a full verb

    The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions.


    positive sentence: They are fifteen years old.
    negative sentence: They are not fifteen years old.
    question: Are they fifteen years old?

    The verb "have"

    The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.)



    Compound Tenses - Active Voice
    Present Perfect Simple: He has played football.

    Past Perfect Simple: He had played football.

    Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football.

    Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football.

    Compound Tenses - Passive Voice

    Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built.

    Note that have is an irregular verb, too:

    Simple Present: I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has

    Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they had

    Past Participle: had

    "have" in positive sentences

    As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb).


    full verb:
    I have a car.

    auxiliary verb:
    I have got a car.

    "have" in negative sentences and questions

    When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary.


    have as a full verb:
    I do not have a car.
    Do I have a car?

    have as an auxiliary verb:
    I have not got a car.
    Have I got a car?

    The verb "will"

    The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.



    The auxiliary verb "will"
    Future I:
    He will not play football.

    Future II:
    He will have played football.

    The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form for negative sentences is won't.'
    eg; I will, he will
    I will not = I won't

    The verb "do"

    The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.)



    The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences

    Simple Present: He does not play football. Simple

    Past: He did not play football.

    The auxiliary "do" in questions

    Simple Present: Does he play football?

    Simple Past: Did he play football?

    The verb do is irregular:

    Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does

    Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they did

    The full verb "do"

    As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.


    positive sentence: She does her homework every day.
    negative sentence:She doesn't do her homework every day.
    question: Does she do her homework every day?

    Sentences without the auxiliary "do"
    In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:
    the full verb is "be"
    eg; I am not angry. / Are you okay?
    the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)
    eg; They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that? the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)
    eg; We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please? the question asks for the subject of the sentence
    eg; Who sings that song? Other common auxiliary verbs are: will, should, would, can, must, might, may, could (These verbs are often called modal verbs).

    Modal verbs

    The modal verbs include can, must, may, might, will, would, should. They are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. Below is a list showing the most useful modals and their most common meanings:

    Modal    Meaning    Example
    can     to     express ability I can speak a little Russian.
    can     to     request permission Can I open the window?
    may    to     express possibility I may be home late.
    may     to     request permission May I sit down, please?
    must     to     express obligation I must go now.
    must     to     express strong belief She must be over 90 years old.
    should     to     give advice You should stop smoking.
    would     to     request or offer Would you like a cup of tea?
    would     in if-sentences     If I were you, I would say sorry

    Modal verbs are unlike other verbs. They do not change their form (spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (past/present). The modals must and can need substitute verbs to express obligation or ability in the different tenses. Here are some examples:


    Past simple:: Sorry I'm late. I had to finish my math test.

    Present perfect:: She's had to return to Korea at short notice.

    Future:: You'll have to work hard if you want to pass the exams.

    Infinitive Past simple:: I don't want to have to go. I couldn't/wasn't able to walk until I was 3 years old.

    Present perfect:: I haven't been able to solve this problem. Can you help?

    Future Infinitive:: I would love to be able to play the piano.

    Modals are auxiliary verbs. They do not need an additional auxiliary in negatives or questions. For example:


    Must I come? , or: He shouldn't smoke
    Contracted auxiliaries
    The auxiliary verbs are very often contracted. For example, you can say I'm playing tennis tomorrow, instead of I am playing tennis tomorrow. The contracted form (which needs an apostrophe) is more likely to be used in spoken language.
    The short form itself often has two alternatives, which are equally usual and correct.
    For example:
    She's not going to the dance.
    She isn't going to the dance.
    I haven't seen him for ages.
    I've not seen him for ages.

    The full form is common in spoken language when the speaker wants to emphasize what she is saying. For
    example:
    Why don't you call him?
    I have called him.
    I do not want to see him again

    Conditional Clauses

    Zero conditional


    When we talk about things that are generally or always true, we can use:
    If/When/Unless plus a present form PLUS present simple or imperative

    Eg. If he gets there before me, ask him to wait.
    When you fly budget airline, you have to pay for your drinks and snacks.
    Unless you need more space, a small car is big enough for one person.

    Note that we are not talking about a specific event but something which is generally true.

    In the condition clause, we can use a variety of present forms. In the result clause, there can only be the present simple or imperative.

    Eg. If you visit London, go on the London Eye.
    If unemployment is rising, people tend to stay in their present jobs.
    If you've done that, go and have a coffee.
    When you go on holiday, take plenty of sun cream. It'll be very hot.
    When I'm concentrating, please don't make so much noise.
    When I've finished an article, I always ask Kate to read it through.

    Notice that 'unless' means the same as 'if not'.
    Eg. Unless he asks you politely, refuse to do any more work on the project.
    Unless prices are rising, it's not a good investment.
    Unless you've been there yourself, you don't really understand how fantastic it is

    The first conditional

    We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.



    Eg. If we take John, he'll be really pleased.
    If you give me some money, I'll pay you back tomorrow.
    If they tell us they want it, we'll have to give it to them.
    If Mary comes, she'll want to drive.
    The 'if' clause can be used with different present forms.

    Eg. If I go to New York again, I'll buy you a souvenir from the Empire ate Building.
    If she hasn't heard the bad news yet, I'll tell her.
    The "future clause" can contain 'going to' or the future perfect as well as 'will'.

    Eg. If I see him, I'm going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
    If we don't get the contract, we'll have wasted a lot of time and money.
    The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as 'can' and 'must'

    Eg. If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy's.
    If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.

    Second conditional


    The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations.

    Eg. If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert Hyde Park.
    If I had millions dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.
    If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
    If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.

    Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .)
    Eg. If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one.
    If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day.
    If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.

    Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.
    Eg. If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live.
    If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.

    The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations.
    Eg. If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall.
    If I was the President, I'd reduce taxes.
    If you were in my position, you'd understand.

    Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts.

    Compare these examples.
    Joy thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't.
    Joy - If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.
    Peter - If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.
    Joy - If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.
    Peter - If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.
    Joy - If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.
    Peter - If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.

    Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.
    Eg. If I was still working in Delhi, I would commute by train.
    If she were coming, she would be here by now.
    If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.

    Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might
    Eg. If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
    If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
    If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.

    Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.
    Eg. What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here")
    Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
    He wouldn't agree. ("if I asked him")

    Third conditional


    We can use the Third Conditional to talk about 'impossible' conditions, impossible because they are in the past and we cannot change what has happened.

    Eg. If I had worked harder at school, I would have got better grades.
    If I had had time, I would have gone to see him. But I didn't have time.
    If we had bought that house, we would have had to rebuild the kitchen.
    If we had caught the earlier train, we would have got there on time but we were late.

    Notice that the main clause can contain 'would', 'could' or 'might.
    Eg. If I had seen him at the meeting, I would have asked him. (But he hasn't there so I didn't.)
    If I had seen him at the meeting, I could have asked him. ( But he wasn't there so it wasn't possible.)
    If I had seen him at the meeting, I might have asked him. (But I'm not sure. Perhaps if the opportunity had arisen.)
    If I had paid more attention in class, I would have understood the lesson.

    Exercise


    Give suitable words to fill in:
    1) If you like, you ----- for two days.
    2) If I ------ the film in the cinema, I wouldn't have watched it on TV again.
    3) If the parents bought the cat, their children --- - very happy.
    4) Metal ------- if you heat it.
    5) He ------- my e-mail if he'd been online yesterday evening.
    6) They'd have been able to return the bottle if they------- the labels.
    7) If she -------- up her room, she must find the receipt.
    8) What ------- if you had a million dollars.
    9) Where would you live if you------ younger.
    10) If you ------ for a little moment, I'll tell the doctor you are here.

    Click Me For Answers
      1.can stay   2. had seen   3. would be   4.expands   5. should have received   6.hadn't torn off   7. tidies up   8.would you do   9. were   10.will wait

    PRONOUNS

    A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. It refers to a person or thing without giving the name. There are two types of Personal Pronouns:


    (1) those used as subjects; and
    (2) those used as objects.

    Personal Pronouns



    Singular       Subject Object
    IstPerson I Me We Us
    IIndPerson You You You You
    IIIrdPerson He Him They Them

    Plural       Subject Object
    Ist We Us
    IInd You You
    IIIrd They Them

    Reflexive Pronouns

    We use the Reflexive Pronoun when the action of the doer goes back to himself so that the Subject of the sentence is the same person as the object.


    Example: He has hurt himself.
    Pronouns like 'himself' are called Reflexive Pronouns.
    They always end in 'self '.
    Reflexive Pronouns

        Singular Plural IstPerson Myself Ourselves IstPerson Yourself Yourselves IIIrdPerson Himself Themselves

    Relative Pronouns

    The Relative Pronouns take the place of Nouns or Pronouns; and they are used to join two sentences about the same person or thing.


    Examples of relative pronouns: who, which, that, whom and whose.
    In most cases, we use who, whose and whom to make statements about people.
    We use who to join two sentences.

    Example: "The man is an artist. He drew that picture."
    "The man is an artist who drew that picture."
    We use whose to show possession or relationship.

    Example: "That is my uncle whose son is my cousin."

    We use which or that in almost the same way as we use who but it refers to things, not human beings. There is one other difference in the way we use who and which.
    verb, a pronoun or a noun.

    Example: That is the camera which costs fifty dollars. That is the camera which he bought. That is the camera which John likes.
    We use whom to make a statement about human beings. It is used in place of who (a) when it is the object of a verb or (b) when it comes after a preposition. Example: (a) The man whom they caught was sent to prison. (b) The man to whom you should speak is my uncle.

    Exercise

    Fill in the blanks with 'which, 'who', 'whom' and 'whose'.
    1. The boy, _____ father is a doctor, is my best friend.
    2. This is not something _____ we like to do.
    3. That man, _____ left leg was amputated, suffers from diabetes.
    4. The thief, _____ they caught, was sent to the prison.
    5. Our friends, _____ we invited to the party, arrived rather early.
    6. The girl, _____ broke the mirror, was scolded by her mother.
    7. That is my uncle, _____ car was stolen.
    8. That woman, _____ you saw, was my auntie.
    9. Kangaroos, _____ use their pouch to carry their babies, are found in Australia.
    10. The policeman, ______ caught the thief, is a very brave man.

    Click Me For Answers
     1.whose   2.which   3.whose   4.whom   5.whom   6.who   7.whose   8.whom   9.which   10.who

    PREPOSITIONS

    Prepositions are words placed before Nouns and Pronouns. They are used to show time, position and direction.



    Examples of Prepositions showing time:
    My birthday falls in September.
    Most shops are closed on Sunday.
    I have an appointment at 9 o'clock.

    Examples of Prepositions showing position:
    He is standing at the door.
    The glass is on the table.
    The cat is sleeping under the chair.

    Examples of Prepositions showing direction:
    She got into the taxi.
    The girl is walking towards her mother.
    I have to go to town.

    Other examples of expressions using prepositions:
    The picture was drawn by his brother.
    She likes to go out with her friends.
    They say I walk like my father.
    Her parents give her a box of sweets.

    Expressions using Prepositions:

    good at,get up,fall off,interested in, clever at,wake up,get off,involved in, bad at,look up,set off,send in,point at,clean up,break off work in,stare at, add up, finish off, fill in, fight against, get into, turn on, made of, speak against, cash into, switch on, built of, vote against, jump into, get on, a box of, hit against, turn into, carry on, half of, lean against, dive into, put it, on many of.

    Exercise

    Fill in the blanks with these words: against, at, by, for, from, in, like, near, of, on, to, up, with.
    1. She is doing a degree course _____ a university.
    2. His trousers were washed _____ the washing machine.
    3. We had to climb slowly _____ the hill.
    4. His house looks _____ a temple.
    5. How many _____ the members will join the trip?
    6. Don't lean that ladder _____ the wall.
    7. I don't usually feel tired _____ the morning.
    8. Have you heard anything _____ him yet?
    9. My house is quite _____ to your school.
    10. Put this _____ your drawer and do not let anyone see it.

    Click Me For Answers
     1.at   2.by   3.up   4.like   5.of   6.against   7.in   8.from   9.near   10.in