Kinds of Nouns:
Common Nouns - They are names of people (e.g. man), things (e.g. books), animals (e.g. monkey) and places (church).
Proper Nouns - They are special names of people (e.g. George ), things (e.g. Financial Times), animals (e.g. King Kong) and places (e.g. Paris). A proper noun begins with a Capital Letter.
Abstract Nouns - An abstract noun is the name of something that we can only think of or feel but can- not see (e.g. friendship).
Collective Nouns - They are names used for a num- ber of people, things or animals together and treated as one. For example: a group of friends, a bunch of bananas, a litter of puppies.
Countable and Uncountable Nouns - Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted (e.g. trees). Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be counted. (e.g. smoke).
Nouns have four genders:
1. Masculine Gender - The masculine gender is used for all males. Example: boy, man
2. Feminine Gender - The feminine gender is used for all females. Example: girl, woman
3. Common Gender - The common gender is used where the noun can be both male and female. Example: cousin, friend, person, child, student
4. Neuter Gender - The neuter gender is used for things which have no life or sex. Example: table, chair.
Singular and Plural Nouns - A noun that shows only one person (e.g. a girl), thing (e.g. pencil), animal (e.g. tiger) or place (e.g. market) is called a singular noun. A noun that shows more than one person (e.g. girls), thing (e.g. pencils), animal (e.g. tigers) or place (e.g. markets) is called a plural noun
Plural nouns are formed.
- By adding -s. 'es' to nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh and
- By adding 'es' to nouns ending in -o.
- By adding 's' to nouns ending in -o.
- By replacing 'y' with -ies.
- By adding 's' to nouns ending in -y.
- By replacing 'f' or 'fe' with -ves.
- By adding 's' to nouns ending in -f or -fe.
- By changing vowels.
- Some nouns have same words for plural and singular.
- Exceptional plural.
Verbs are words that show action. Every sentence must have a verb. A verb is not always one word. It may be made up of more than one word
The words: am, is, are, was, and were are verbs. They are forms of the verb 'to be'. They are helping verbs called auxiliary verbs.
If the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb must be singular. If the subject of a sentence is plural, the verb must be plural. The verb must agree with the subject in number.
Examples of 'subjects' and 'verbs' being singular:
The man is sleeping.
She goes to the market.
The student does his homework every day.
The train has arrived.
'Man', 'she', 'student' and 'train' are known as subjects.The subjects are all singular.The verbs 'is','goes', 'does' and 'has' are all singular too.
Examples of 'subjects' and 'verbs' being plural:
The men are sleeping.
They go to the market.
The students do their homework every day.
The trains have arrived.
'Men', 'they', 'students' and 'trains' are known as subjects. The subjects are all plural. The verbs 'are','go', 'do' and 'have' are all plural too.
Other singular and plural subjects that take on singular
and plural verbs:
Subjects with words like 'each', 'every', 'any', 'no','none' and 'nobody' take on the singular verbs.
Examples: Each student is given a pen.
Every child is happy watching the show.
Nobody is allowed to walk on the grass.
Uncountable nouns always take singular verbs.
Examples: Rice is eaten in many countries.
There is oil on the floor.
Salt is added to make the food taste better.
Subjects with words like 'both', 'all', 'many', 'some','several' and 'a number of' take on a plural verb.
Examples: Both of you have to come home early.
All of us want to be happy.
Some of my friends are female.
Two or more subjects joined by 'and' always take a plural verb.
My brother and his friends like to play football.
His father and mother are watching tele vision.
Transitive and intransitive verbs
The verb which needs an object to make its meaning clear or complete is called a transitive verb.
Example: He feeds a cat.
The word 'cat' is called the object of the verb 'feeds'.
The object can be a noun or a pronoun.
The intransitive verb does not need an object but the meaning is clear or complete.
The verb 'ran' does not need an object.
She reads every day. (No object)
He eats quickly. (No object)
The Finite verb
The finite verb changes with the subject. The subject is the person, thing, animal or place we refer to. When the subject is in the first or second person or is plural, the verb does not change. When the subject is in the third person or is singular, the verb changes from, say, 'eat' to 'eats'. The verb 'eat' is a finite verb. Every sentence must have a finite verb. Other usage of verbs to remember:
- When "and" is used to join two nouns or pronouns
together, the verb is usually in the plural.
Examples: Beef and mutton are meat.
He and I were classmates.
- When we use two nouns for the same person or
thing, the verb should be in the singular.
Examples: My friend and classmate is very helpful.
Bread and butter is his only food.
- When we use two nouns for the same person, we
use the article 'the' only once and the verb should
be in the singular.
Example:The shopkeeper and owner of the shop is my uncle.
- When we refer to two different persons, we use the
article twice and the verb must be in the plural.
Example:The shopkeeper and the owner of the shop are my good friends.
- When we join two nouns and treat them as a whole,
the verb is in the singular.
Example:Bread and butter is his usual breakfast.
- When a noun is a quantity or an amount, it is treated
as a whole and the verb is in the singular.
Examples:Ten kilometers is not a long way to travel.
Nowadays, fifty dollars is not a lot of money.
A verb is used in different forms as follow:
- Simple Present Tense eat
- Simple Past Tense ate
- Present Participle is eating
- Past Participle has eaten
- Future Tense will eat
THE PRESENT TENSE
The Present Continuous Tense
Used to show that something is still happening, that is, an action is still going on at the time of speaking. It shows that the action is not yet complete.
Example: He is writing a letter.
a. Used instead of the future tense. We usually say the time when this future action will take place
Example: He is going to Japan next week.
b. Used to use the phrase 'is going' which means 'about to'.
Example: It is going to rain.
c. Used to show an action which happens many times. We often use 'always' with this expression.
Example: He is always getting into trouble
The Present Perfect Tense
Used to show an action which has just been completed or a past action when the time is not mentioned. The action may be a recent one or it may be one which happened a long time ago.
Example: I have finished reading the book.
There have been many changes in this country.
a. Used for an action that has been going on from the past until now, that is, something that happened in the past but is going on still.
Example: I have lived here for ten years.
b. Used often with 'just', 'already', 'recently', 'never', 'yet' and (in questions) with 'ever'
Example: I have already told them about the plan.
She has never replied to my letter.
Have you ever been to London?
c. Used often to answer questions which contain a verb in the Present Perfect tense.
Example: Where have you been? I have been to London to see the Queen.
What have you lost? I have lost all my money.
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Used for an action that had been going on in the past before another action occurred in the past.
Example: She had been cooking when we visited her
THE FUTURE TENSE
The Future Tense is used to show some action or happening in the future. Future Simple + 'Going To"
Simple Future Tenseis used to show future action or that something will happen in the future.
Example: We will complete the work tomorrow.
'Going to' is used to express a future action that has been planned in advance.
Example: We are going to Japan next week.
Future Continuous Tenseis used to show continuous action at some future time.
Example: I shall be seeing both of you tomorrow.
Future Perfect Tenseis used for an action which will have finished by some future time or date which is mentioned or before another action has begun.
Example: I shall have finished this job by seven o'clock.
I shall have finished this job by the time you arrive.
Future Perfect Continuous TenseThis continuous tense is formed with 'shall/will have been' + a present particle.
Example: I shall have been married for exactly ten years next Saturday.
Write the correct form of the verb in the brackets:
1) I -----to the cinema yesterday.( to go)
2) Peter ----- 13 tomorrow. ( to be)
3) My friend----- to music every evening.( to listen)
4) They ------ their car. It looks new again.( to clean)
5) Listen! Mr Jones-------- the piano.( to play)
6) She ------- her left arm two weeks ago. (to break)
7) We -------- a test now. ( to write)
8) Danny ---------- a book this evening. ( to read)
9) Ken and Emily often------- lunch at school. ( to have)
10) He ---------- his money. So he can't buy this hamburger.( to lose)
Click Me For Answers1.went 2. will be 3. listens 4. have cleaned 5. is playing 6. broke 7. are writing 8.is going to read 9. have 10. has lost
An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun, that is, about a person, an animal, a thing or a place.
She is a pretty girl.
A giraffe has a long neck.
The table is round.
That is an old temple.
There are various kinds of adjectives:
1. An adjective which tells us about the quality of the noun.
Example: the blue sky, a big house, a square table, a cold morning.
2. An adjective which tells us about the quatity of the noun.
Example: The zoo has many animals.
The pen has not much ink left.
3. An adjective which tells us about the ownership of the noun.
Example: That is my dog.
Those are their bicycles.
4. An adjective which poses question in an 'interrogative' manner.
Example: Which school do you go to?
Whose car is this?
5. An adjective which specifies a noun.
Example: This boy is a member of the club.
That girl is my sister.
Adjectives which end in '-ing',
e.g. an interesting film, an amazing player, an annoying habit,
Adjectives which end in '-ed,
e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners, improved version,
Comparison of adjectives
We use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns.
For example: His house is as big as my house.
We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns.
For example: His house is bigger than my house.
We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns.
For example: His house is the biggest in the neighbourhood.
Positive Comparative Superlative bold bolder boldest deep deeper deepest near nearer nearest rich richer richest tall taller tallest careful more careful most careful enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable forgetful more forgetful most forgetful useful more useful most useful
An adverb adds more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
I called you last night. (called=verb; last night=adverb)
Your dress is very beautiful.(beautiful=adjective; very=adverb)
The rain stopped quite suddenly.(suddenly=adverb; quite=adverb)
Types of Adverbs
Adverb of Time -
This shows when an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question "When?" It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Example: I phoned you yesterday.
I saw her walking along the river last week.
Adverb of Place-
This shows where an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question "Where?" It is placed after the verb.
Example: I live here.
He fell down.
Adverb of Manner -
This shows how an action or something is done. It answers the question "How?" It is usually placed just after the verb.
Example: She sleeps soundly.
He drives quickly.
Adverb of Degree or Quantity -
This answers the questions, "To what degree?" or "How much?" It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb.
Example: It is too dark for us to see anything.
Last night it rained very heavily..
Adverb of Frequency -
This answers the question "How often?"
Example: He will never have finished in time.
We always go to school by bus.
Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No)
Example: yes, surely, certainly, indeed, by all means, no, not at all, by no means.
Interrogative Adverb (Question)
Example: When? Where? How? Why? How much/often?
when, where, how, why These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs; but they are not questions.
Example: The time when he arrived.
The scene where the accident occurred.
He knows how to do it.
The reason why he left.
Comparison of Adverbs
Similar to the comparison of adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison - the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Most adverbs which end in '-ly' form the Comparative with 'more' and the Superlative with 'most'
Positive Comparative Superlative comfortably more comfortably most comfortably happily more happily most happily kindly more kindly most kindly loudly more loudly most loudly noisily more noisily most noisily
Choose the most suitable adverb to fill each blank: (angrily, enough, never, outside, yesterday ,down, last week, often, quickly, rarely ,always, just, nearly, online, unusually )
1. She left _____ for the university where she is doing a degree course.
2. We are standing _____ his house waiting for him.
3. He told us _____ not to walk on the grass.
4. I am not strong _____ to help him carry that box.
5. She will _____ be happy in that job.
6. _____, I saw him walking to the church.
7. My father is _____ late for work.
8. He drove _____ to avoid being late.
9. I _____ play badminton with my sister.
10. This is the place where he fell _____.
11. It took _____ two hours to get here.
12. They were _____ very friendly.
13. He has _____ strong hands.
14. She has _____ completed her degree course.
15. This dictionary went _____ in 2003.
Click Me For Answers1.yesterday 2.outside 3.angrily 4.enough 5.never 6.Last week 7.rarely 8.quickly 9.often 10.down. 11nearly 12.always 13.unusually 14.just 15.online
Definite Article - 'The'
Indefinite Article - 'A' or 'An'
'A' is used:
Before a word which begins with a consonant.
Example: a woman
Before a singular, countable noun.
Example: a banana
When we mention something for the first time.
Example: I saw a dog.
Before a word with a long sound of 'u'.
Example: a university, a uniform, a useful book,a European,
Before the word one.
Example: a one-way street, a one-eyed man, a one-year course, a one-day holiday, etc.
'An' is used:
Before a noun which begins with a vowel.
Example: an apple.
Before a word which begins with a vowel sound or a
Example: an hour, an honest man, an heir, an honour,an honourable man, etc
Before a singular, countable noun which begins with a vowel or silent 'h'.
Example: an orange
'The' is used:
1. When the same thing or person mentioned again, that is, a particular thing or person.
Example: I bought an orange. The orange is sweet..
2. When there is only one such thing.
Example: the earth, the sun, the moon.
3. Before the names of famous buildings, etc.
Example: The Eiffel Tower, The Great Wall of China.
4. When a singular noun is used to point out a whole class, race, group, etc.
Example: The bear is a strong animal.
5. Before the special names of rivers, seas, oceans, mountain ranges, groups of islands, certain organizations, political parties, and countries such as the U.S.A., the U.K., the U.S.S.R. and the U.A.E., The Nile, The Dead Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The Himalayas, The United Nations, The Republican Party, etc.
6. Before the names of holy or important books.
Example: The Koran, The Bible.
7. Before an adjective when the noun is understood.
Example: The poor need help.
Articles are not used:
1. Before the name of a person:
Example: I am a fan of Michael Jackson.(not A or The Michael Jackson)
2. Before the name of a place, town, country,street, or road.
Example: Barcelona is a beautiful city.(not A or The Barcelona)
3. Before names of materials.
Example: Gold is found in Australia.(not A or The gold)
4. Before abstract nouns used in a general sense.
Example: We love all beauty.(not a beauty or the beauty)
ExerciseFill each blank with 'a', 'an', 'the' or leave it blank.
1. He left _____ home without informing anyone.
2. There is _____ box of sweets on _____ table.
3. Do you need _____ degree in Economics or ____ degree in finance to be a better manager?
4. When we arrived, she went straight to _____ kitchen and started to prepare ___ meal for us.
5. He has _____ cut on his leg and _____ bruise on _____ chin.
6. Mt. Everest is _____ highest mountain in _____ world.
7. Switch off _____ air-conditioner please. I have _____ cold.
8. We reached _____ top of _____ hill during _____ afternoon.
9. Do you like _____ weather here? Isn't it too hot during _____ day but it is very cold at night?
10. _____ attempt has been made to collect funds to start _____ public library in _____ town where I live.
Click Me For Answers1.-- 2.a, the 3.a,a 4.the,a 5.a, a, the 6.the,the 7.the,a 8.the,a, the 9.the,the, 10.an, a, the
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech
Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.
Indirect Speech / Reported Speech
Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.
"I'm going to the cinema", he said.
He said he was going to the cinema.
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech Indirect speech
Present simple Past simple She said, "It's cold." She said it was cold.
Present continuous Past continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." She said she was teaching English online.
Present perfect simple Past perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." She said she had been on the web since 1999.
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." She said she had been teaching English for seven years.
Past simple Past perfect She said, "I taught online yesterday." She said she had taught online yesterday.
Past continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." She said she had been teaching earlier.
Past perfect Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started he arrived." arrived. NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he when
Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." minutes. NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five
Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
will would She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." She said she would teach English online tomorrow.
can could She said, "I can teach English online." She said she could teach English online.
must had to She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." She said she had to have a computer to teach English online.
shall should She said, "What shall we learn today?" She asked what we should learn today.
may might She said, "May I open a new browser?" She asked if she might open a new browser.
exact quote Indirect speech (not exact) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. She said next week's lesson is on reported speech
Today Indirect speech "Today's lesson is on presentations." She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations
Note-Time change If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.
Expressions of time if reported on a different day
this (evening) ::: that (evening)
today ::: yesterday
these (days) ::: those (days)
now ::: then
(a week) ago ::: (a week) before
last weekend ::: the weekend before last / the previous weekend
here ::: there
next (week) ::: the following (week)
tomorrow ::: the next/following day
In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).
In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
"I teach English online." She said she teaches English online.
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
We use asked to report questions:-
For example: I asked Prema what time the lesson started.
We use told with an object.
For example: Sasikala told me she felt tired.
Note - Here me is the object.
We usually use said without an object.
For example: Sophy said she was going to teach online.
If said is used with an object we must include to ;
For example: Romy said to me that she'd never been to China.
Note - We usually use told.
For example: Aruna told me that she'd never been to China.
There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.
Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.
He asked me to come to the party:-
He invited me to the party.
He begged me to come to the party.
He ordered me to come to the party.
He advised me to come to the party
ExerciseRewrite the following in the Reported Speech.
1. He said, "I have eaten my lunch."
2. She said, "I am doing a degree at the university"
3. The teacher said to the class, "Pay attention."
4. My mother said to me, "Buy some bananas for me."
5. My father said to me, "Don't waste your money."
6. She said to me, "Where is the hospital?."
7. My friend said to me. "Don't be late tomorrow."
8. He asked me, "When will the train arrive?"
9. His teacher said to him, "Try to do it by your self."
10. She asked me, "What are your favorite online games?"
Click Me For Answers
1. He said that he had eaten his lunch.
2. She said that she was doing a degree at the university.
3. The teacher told the class to pay attention.
4. My mother told/asked me to buy some bananas.
5. My father told me not to waste my money. .
6. She asked me where the hospital is.
7. My friend asked me not to be late tomorrow.
8. He asked me when the train will arrive.
9. His teacher told him to try to do it by himself. .
10. She asked me what my favorite online games are.
Auxiliary verbs are sometimes called helping verbs because they are needed to form many of the tenses. The most used auxiliary verbs are the verbs to be, to do and to have. For example: the auxiliary to do is needed to ask questions in the present and past simple tenses. To be is needed for the present and past continuous, and all the passive forms. The auxiliary to have is used in the present and past perfect tenses. Here are some examples of the common auxiliary
verbs in action:
Do you like German food?
Does your mother speak English?
Did you come to school yesterday?
Why are you talking?
You should be listening to me!
I was having a bath when you called!
A new road is being built behind the school.
Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the passive.
The verb "be"
The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:
I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are
I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were
You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)
He is playing football.
He was playing football.
Present Perfect Progressive:
He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive:
He had been playing football.
The house is/was built.
The house has/had been built.
Future I: The house will be built.
"be" as a full verb
The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions.
positive sentence: They are fifteen years old.
negative sentence: They are not fifteen years old.
question: Are they fifteen years old?
The verb "have"
The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.)
Compound Tenses - Active Voice
Present Perfect Simple: He has played football.
Past Perfect Simple: He had played football.
Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football.
Compound Tenses - Passive Voice
Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built.
Note that have is an irregular verb, too:
Simple Present: I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has
Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they had
Past Participle: had
"have" in positive sentences
As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb).
I have a car.
I have got a car.
"have" in negative sentences and questions
When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary.
have as a full verb:
I do not have a car.
Do I have a car?
have as an auxiliary verb:
I have not got a car.
Have I got a car?
The verb "will"
The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.
The auxiliary verb "will"
He will not play football.
He will have played football.
The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form for negative sentences is won't.'
eg; I will, he will
I will not = I won't
The verb "do"
The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.)
The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences
Simple Present: He does not play football. Simple
Past: He did not play football.
The auxiliary "do" in questions
Simple Present: Does he play football?
Simple Past: Did he play football?
The verb do is irregular:
Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does
Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they did
The full verb "do"
As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.
positive sentence: She does her homework every day.
negative sentence:She doesn't do her homework every day.
question: Does she do her homework every day?
Sentences without the auxiliary "do"
In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:
the full verb is "be"
eg; I am not angry. / Are you okay?
the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)
eg; They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that? the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)
eg; We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please? the question asks for the subject of the sentence
eg; Who sings that song? Other common auxiliary verbs are: will, should, would, can, must, might, may, could (These verbs are often called modal verbs).
The modal verbs include can, must, may, might, will, would, should. They are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. Below is a list showing the most useful modals and their most common meanings:Modal Meaning Example
can to express ability I can speak a little Russian.
can to request permission Can I open the window?
may to express possibility I may be home late.
may to request permission May I sit down, please?
must to express obligation I must go now.
must to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old.
should to give advice You should stop smoking.
would to request or offer Would you like a cup of tea?
would in if-sentences If I were you, I would say sorry
Modal verbs are unlike other verbs. They do not change their form (spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (past/present). The modals must and can need substitute verbs to express obligation or ability in the different tenses. Here are some examples:
Past simple:: Sorry I'm late. I had to finish my math test.
Present perfect:: She's had to return to Korea at short notice.
Future:: You'll have to work hard if you want to pass the exams.
Infinitive Past simple:: I don't want to have to go. I couldn't/wasn't able to walk until I was 3 years old.
Present perfect:: I haven't been able to solve this problem. Can you help?
Future Infinitive:: I would love to be able to play the piano.
Modals are auxiliary verbs. They do not need an additional auxiliary in negatives or questions. For example:
Must I come? , or: He shouldn't smoke
The auxiliary verbs are very often contracted. For example, you can say I'm playing tennis tomorrow, instead of I am playing tennis tomorrow. The contracted form (which needs an apostrophe) is more likely to be used in spoken language.
The short form itself often has two alternatives, which are equally usual and correct.
She's not going to the dance.
She isn't going to the dance.
I haven't seen him for ages.
I've not seen him for ages.
The full form is common in spoken language when the speaker wants to emphasize what she is saying. For
Why don't you call him?
I have called him.
I do not want to see him again
When we talk about things that are generally or always true, we can use:
If/When/Unless plus a present form PLUS present simple or imperative
Eg. If he gets there before me, ask him to wait.
When you fly budget airline, you have to pay for your drinks and snacks.
Unless you need more space, a small car is big enough for one person.
Note that we are not talking about a specific event but something which is generally true.
In the condition clause, we can use a variety of present forms. In the result clause, there can only be the present simple or imperative.
Eg. If you visit London, go on the London Eye.
If unemployment is rising, people tend to stay in their present jobs.
If you've done that, go and have a coffee.
When you go on holiday, take plenty of sun cream. It'll be very hot.
When I'm concentrating, please don't make so much noise.
When I've finished an article, I always ask Kate to read it through.
Notice that 'unless' means the same as 'if not'.
Eg. Unless he asks you politely, refuse to do any more work on the project.
Unless prices are rising, it's not a good investment.
Unless you've been there yourself, you don't really understand how fantastic it is
The first conditional
We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.
Eg. If we take John, he'll be really pleased.
If you give me some money, I'll pay you back tomorrow.
If they tell us they want it, we'll have to give it to them.
If Mary comes, she'll want to drive.
The 'if' clause can be used with different present forms.
Eg. If I go to New York again, I'll buy you a souvenir from the Empire ate Building.
If she hasn't heard the bad news yet, I'll tell her.
The "future clause" can contain 'going to' or the future perfect as well as 'will'.
Eg. If I see him, I'm going to tell him exactly how angry I am.
If we don't get the contract, we'll have wasted a lot of time and money.
The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as 'can' and 'must'
Eg. If you go to New York, you must have the cheesecake in Lindy's.
If he comes, you can get a lift home with him.
The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations.
Eg. If we were in London today, we would be able to go to the concert Hyde Park.
If I had millions dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.
If there were no hungry people in this world, it would be a much better place.
If everyone had clean water to drink, there would be a lot less disease.
Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .)
Eg. If she were happy in her job, she wouldn't be looking for another one.
If I lived in Japan, I'd have sushi every day.
If they were to enter our market, we'd have big problems.
Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.
Eg. If I were you, I'd look for a new place to live.
If I were you, I'd go back to school and get more qualifications.
The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations.
Eg. If I went to China, I'd visit the Great Wall.
If I was the President, I'd reduce taxes.
If you were in my position, you'd understand.
Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts.
Compare these examples.
Joy thinks these things are possible, Peter doesn't.
Joy - If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.
Peter - If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.
Joy - If I get promoted, I'll throw a big party.
Peter - If I got promoted, I'd throw a big party.
Joy - If my team win the Cup, I'll buy champagne for everybody.
Peter - If my team won the Cup, I'd buy champagne for everybody.
Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous.
Eg. If I was still working in Delhi, I would commute by train.
If she were coming, she would be here by now.
If they were thinking of selling, I would want to buy.
Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might
Eg. If I had the chance to do it again, I would do it differently.
If we met up for lunch, we could go to that new restaurant.
If I spoke to him directly, I might be able to persuade him.
Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.
Eg. What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here")
Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one")
He wouldn't agree. ("if I asked him")
We can use the Third Conditional to talk about 'impossible' conditions, impossible because they are in the past and we cannot change what has happened.
Eg. If I had worked harder at school, I would have got better grades.
If I had had time, I would have gone to see him. But I didn't have time.
If we had bought that house, we would have had to rebuild the kitchen.
If we had caught the earlier train, we would have got there on time but we were late.
Notice that the main clause can contain 'would', 'could' or 'might.
Eg. If I had seen him at the meeting, I would have asked him. (But he hasn't there so I didn't.)
If I had seen him at the meeting, I could have asked him. ( But he wasn't there so it wasn't possible.)
If I had seen him at the meeting, I might have asked him. (But I'm not sure. Perhaps if the opportunity had arisen.)
If I had paid more attention in class, I would have understood the lesson.
Give suitable words to fill in:
1) If you like, you ----- for two days.
2) If I ------ the film in the cinema, I wouldn't have watched it on TV again.
3) If the parents bought the cat, their children --- - very happy.
4) Metal ------- if you heat it.
5) He ------- my e-mail if he'd been online yesterday evening.
6) They'd have been able to return the bottle if they------- the labels.
7) If she -------- up her room, she must find the receipt.
8) What ------- if you had a million dollars.
9) Where would you live if you------ younger.
10) If you ------ for a little moment, I'll tell the doctor you are here.
Click Me For Answers1.can stay 2. had seen 3. would be 4.expands 5. should have received 6.hadn't torn off 7. tidies up 8.would you do 9. were 10.will wait
A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. It refers to a person or thing without giving the name. There are two types of Personal Pronouns:
(1) those used as subjects; and
(2) those used as objects.
Singular Subject Object
IstPerson I Me We Us
IIndPerson You You You You
IIIrdPerson He Him They Them
Plural Subject Object
Ist We Us
IInd You You
IIIrd They Them
We use the Reflexive Pronoun when the action of the doer goes back to himself so that the Subject of the sentence is the same person as the object.
Example: He has hurt himself.
Pronouns like 'himself' are called Reflexive Pronouns.
They always end in 'self '.
Singular Plural IstPerson Myself Ourselves IstPerson Yourself Yourselves IIIrdPerson Himself Themselves
The Relative Pronouns take the place of Nouns or Pronouns; and they are used to join two sentences about the same person or thing.
Examples of relative pronouns: who, which, that, whom and whose.
In most cases, we use who, whose and whom to make statements about people.
We use who to join two sentences.
Example: "The man is an artist. He drew that picture."
"The man is an artist who drew that picture."
We use whose to show possession or relationship.
Example: "That is my uncle whose son is my cousin."
We use which or that in almost the same way as we use who but it refers to things, not human beings. There is one other difference in the way we use who and which.
verb, a pronoun or a noun.
Example: That is the camera which costs fifty dollars. That is the camera which he bought. That is the camera which John likes.
We use whom to make a statement about human beings. It is used in place of who (a) when it is the object of a verb or (b) when it comes after a preposition. Example: (a) The man whom they caught was sent to prison. (b) The man to whom you should speak is my uncle.
ExerciseFill in the blanks with 'which, 'who', 'whom' and 'whose'.
1. The boy, _____ father is a doctor, is my best friend.
2. This is not something _____ we like to do.
3. That man, _____ left leg was amputated, suffers from diabetes.
4. The thief, _____ they caught, was sent to the prison.
5. Our friends, _____ we invited to the party, arrived rather early.
6. The girl, _____ broke the mirror, was scolded by her mother.
7. That is my uncle, _____ car was stolen.
8. That woman, _____ you saw, was my auntie.
9. Kangaroos, _____ use their pouch to carry their babies, are found in Australia.
10. The policeman, ______ caught the thief, is a very brave man.
Click Me For Answers1.whose 2.which 3.whose 4.whom 5.whom 6.who 7.whose 8.whom 9.which 10.who
Prepositions are words placed before Nouns and Pronouns. They are used to show time, position and direction.
Examples of Prepositions showing time:
My birthday falls in September.
Most shops are closed on Sunday.
I have an appointment at 9 o'clock.
Examples of Prepositions showing position:
He is standing at the door.
The glass is on the table.
The cat is sleeping under the chair.
Examples of Prepositions showing direction:
She got into the taxi.
The girl is walking towards her mother.
I have to go to town.
Other examples of expressions using prepositions:
The picture was drawn by his brother.
She likes to go out with her friends.
They say I walk like my father.
Her parents give her a box of sweets.
Expressions using Prepositions:good at,get up,fall off,interested in, clever at,wake up,get off,involved in, bad at,look up,set off,send in,point at,clean up,break off work in,stare at, add up, finish off, fill in, fight against, get into, turn on, made of, speak against, cash into, switch on, built of, vote against, jump into, get on, a box of, hit against, turn into, carry on, half of, lean against, dive into, put it, on many of.
ExerciseFill in the blanks with these words: against, at, by, for, from, in, like, near, of, on, to, up, with.
1. She is doing a degree course _____ a university.
2. His trousers were washed _____ the washing machine.
3. We had to climb slowly _____ the hill.
4. His house looks _____ a temple.
5. How many _____ the members will join the trip?
6. Don't lean that ladder _____ the wall.
7. I don't usually feel tired _____ the morning.
8. Have you heard anything _____ him yet?
9. My house is quite _____ to your school.
10. Put this _____ your drawer and do not let anyone see it.
Click Me For Answers1.at 2.by 3.up 4.like 5.of 6.against 7.in 8.from 9.near 10.in
The Present Simple
Used for a habitual or repeated action, that is,
for something that we do always, every day,
often, usually, etc.
Example: He plays football on Sundays.
a. Used for a general truth or a fact, that is, for something that is true.
Example: Night follows day.
b. Used for something or an action happening now.
Example: See how she walks.
c. Used instead of the future tense.
Example: He arrives tomorrow.
d. Used instead of the past tense, to make some thing look more real.
Example: The tiger comes; it catches the boy.
e. Used instead of the present perfect tense.
Example: We hear that the king is dead.
f. Used to introduce a quotation, that is, to repeat words spoken or written by someone else.
Example: Shakespeare says: "Neither a bor rower nor a lender be."