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ENGLISH PRACTICE




Passage 1
An educated man should know what is first-rate in those activities which spring from the creative and intellectual faculties of human nature, such as literature, art, architecture and music. I should like to add science and philosophy, but in these two subjects it is difficult for any but the expert to estimate quality, and many educated people have not the close knowledge necessary to judge their real worth. On the other hand everyone has close and daily contact with the other four. Architecture surrounds him in every city, literature meets him on every book-stall, music assails his ears on his radio set and from every juke-box; and art in its protean aspects of form and colour is a part of daily life. The architecture may often be bad, the literature and music often puerile, the art often undeserving of the name; but that is all the more reason why we should be able, in all of them, to distinguish good from bad. To judge by the literature offered us in hotel book-stands, and by most of the music played on the radio and by jukeboxes we might be more discriminating in these fields than we are if it be said that music and art and literature are not essentials of life but. its frills, I would reply that if so, it is curious that they are among the few immortal things in the world, and that should a man wish to be remembered two thousand years hence, the only certain way is to write a great poem or book, compose a great symphony, paint a great picture, carve a great sculpture, or build a great building.



(a) What is it that is necessary for an educated person to know?

(b) Why does the author exclude science and philosophy from it?

(c) What makes it practically easy for an educated man to be able to know literature, art, architecture and music?

(d) How does exposure to ordinary literature and music help us?

(e) What is the author's argument to prove that music, art and literature are essentials of life?


Passage 2
There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another. There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding. It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience. Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that 'Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,'



(a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions?

(b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West?

(c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization?

(d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies?

(e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel 'facile generalization'?


Passage 3
The scientific and technological revolution has brought that fundamental changes in the socio-economic sphere. The use of diesel engine and electricity and the beginning of the application of atomic energy have changed the modes of production. These things have led to the concentration of capital in a few hands. Great enterprises are replacing cottage industries and small firms. The working classes have certainly benefited economically. The miracle of production has necessitated the miracle of consumption. Better amenities are available at a lower cost. A man can buy anything he wants today, if e can only afford. But what kind of men are needed today for our society? Men who can co-operate in large groups, men whose tasks are standardized, men who feel free and independent and at the same time are willing to fit in the social machine without any friction. Modern man is faced with a sort of moral and spiritual dilemma. The crisis of values yawns before him. Today the old values are in the melting pot, and the new values have not found their foothold. Man has become the automaton he has contrived; he has lost ownership of himself. The discord between the development of positive science on the one hand and the dehumanization of man on the other is the worst crisis of the modern age. Apart from the economic sphere, the socio-political sphere has not escaped this stratification and the congruent crisis of values. Since the Renaissance, man has been striving for individual rights and self-dignity. But under the present set-up, only two types of men are found the conditioner and the conditioned. The propaganda officers and the planning bureaus have almost crushed the 'individual self', and it has resulted in the rise of the 'social self'. Due to this pressure, the personality fulfillment or its all-round development is denied to many.



(a) What has changed the modes of production today?

(b) What things are being replaced by great enterprises?

(c) What kind of men are needed today for our society?

(d) Why has man become the automaton of his own creation?

(e) Is modern man able to attain personality fulfilment?


Passage 4
It is true that the smokers cause some nuisance to the non-smokers, but this nuisance is physical while the nuisance that the non-smokers cause the smokers is spiritual. There are, of course, a lot of non-smokers who don't try to interfere with the smokers. It is sometimes assumed that the non-smokers are morally superior, not realizing that they have missed one of the greatest pleasures of mankind. I am willing to allow that smoking is a moral weakness, but on the other hand we must beware of a man without weakness. He is not to be trusted. He is apt to be always sober and he cannot make a single mistake. His habits are too regular, his existence too mechanical and his head always maintains its supremacy over his heart. Much as I like reasonable persons, I hate completely rational beings. For that reason, I am always scared and ill at ease when I enter a house in which there are no ash-trays. The room is apt to be too clean and orderly, and the people are apt to be correct and unemotional. Now the moral and spiritual benefits of smoking have never been appreciated by these correct, righteous, unemotional and unpoetic souls. In my opinion the smokers' morality is, on the whole, higher than that of the non-smokers. The man with a pipe in his mouth is the man after my heart. He is more genial, more open-hearted, and he is often brilliant in conversation. As Thackeray observes, "The pipe draws wisdom from the lips, of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected."

(a) What kind of hardship do .a smoker and a non-smoker cause to each other ?

(b) Why is it wrong to think that a non-smoker is morally superior to a smoker ?

(c) Why is a man without any moral weakness untrustworthy ?

(d) What pleasure of life is missed by a non-smoker ?

(e) What does Thackeray mean to say ?
Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book.

Passage 1

What part should reading play in our lives? It should certainly not be a substitute for action, not for independent thinking, nor for conversation; but it may be a help and stimulant to action; thought and talk; and it is capable of providing almost infinite pleasure. There on our bookshelves or on summons from a library are wits, wisdom, adventure, romance from all ages and from all over the world. Is there any wonder that our eyes sometimes stray wistfully to the bookshelves and away from a dull visitor, or that we shirk a tiresome duty for an exciting book? Books or people? Reading or conversation, listening in to a broadcast or watching a television programme? Which is the better way to gain knowledge or to spend your leisure? Some fortunate people seem always to find time for both and to enjoy both almost equally. My great friend, Arthur Wanchope, a fine soldier, an able administrator and a very gifted personality, was a constant reader; yet always ready to lay aside a book for talk. The advantages of reading over talk are, of course, many. We can select the book that suits our mood, can go at our own pace, skip or turn back whereas we cannot turn over two pages of a tedious companion or close him or her, with a bang. But reading too has its own drawbacks. It lacks the human touch, the salt of life, and is therefore a dangerous substitute for thought or action. Bacon in one of his essays observes that reading maketh a full man; conference (that is talking) a ready man; and writing an exact man. One would like to be full of knowledge, ready in speech and exact by training. What short of books have impressed me and what books have found a permanent place on my bookshelves? To begin with my profession-soldiering. I do not believe that soldiering, a practical business, in which human nature is the main element, can be learnt from text-books. But for those who have grasped the principles of war and have understood that the human factor is the most important element in it. There is military reading that is quite fascinating and valuable. Real and re-read the campaigns of the great commanders, said Napoleon. I would venture to put it differently and would say that the lives and characters of the great commanders are what students of war should examine, since their campaigns are only incidents in them; and that the behaviour of leaders and of their men in the field is the real subject for study. In my general reading history, biography and travel occupy a prominent place; and since I have spent a considerable proportion of my life in the East there are a good number of volumes on India and the Middle East. There is plenty of poetry on my shelves and a good deal of it is in my head. Poetry should dance in the mind, and blow one a kiss; or gallop to adventure with a cheer; or whisper gently of things past; not shuffle or slouch past with dark incomprehensible mutterings. Perhaps I am getting old, anyway I prefer the old poets. Lastly comes what is sometimes called 'escapist literature, the books we read with no other aim, than to rest or amuse the mind; to forget the day's chores and the morrow's anxieties. This is perhaps the most pleasant form of reading for most, and I suspect the only form of reading for many. The volume chosen may either be a thriller or soother — a thriller to bring sense of adventure into the dull daily routine or a soother to rest tired nerves. Our grandfathers in their leisurely days were content with the stately, comfortable three volume novel, but that had passed before the beginning of this century. You will choose your books as you choose your friends, with taste and discrimination; I hope; because they can tell you something of your profession and interests, because they are wise and helpful, because they can stir your blood with tales of adventure, or because they are gay and witty. I can only wish you will get as much pleasure from them as I get from my books. (Words: 703)



Passage 2

We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one's behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use. Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say. They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals. With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people 'on and off' if done at the appropriate time. Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone's behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak. The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them. Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener's gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705)



Passage 3

"What is the use of a house if you haven't got a tolerable planet to put it on?" asked Henry David Thoreau. More than a century later, the Earth seems to be literally falling to pieces - recent environmental set-backs include billions of tones of ices shelves breaking off in the Antarctic and unusually warm temperatures in different part of the world. Panic reactions range from predictions of sinking islands to lamenting the ill-effects of global warming induced by release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The trouble is that we are too much obsessed with the problem of climatic change to even acknowledge the fact that the state of the planet hinges on much more. Climatic change is at best a symptom of a far more complex malaise, just as a fever is most often only an indicator of something that's gone awry in our body. It is time for a complete and comprehensive planetary health check, that will examine the impacts of change in land use, loss of biodiversity, use of fertilizers and pesticides and consistent pollution of water bodies. This would overcome the limitations of evaluating how ecosystems work by reacting to just one major environmental concern as is happening in the case of global warming. These considerations have been responsible for the setting up of an international panel, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Financed by four major international bodies, including the UNO and the World Bank, the eco-panel was set up without much fuss last June (2001), and is expected to determine, over a period of our years and at a cost of $21 million, the state of the Earth's ecosystems. The eco-panel will have source inputs from more than 2,000 natural and social scientists the world over. Put simply, the earth will go through the equivalent of a through physical analysis, so that biological, economic and social information can be collated to help scientists arrive at a final diagnosis. What is crucial, says one of the scientists, is that "no one has previously tried to work out how all of these conflicting pressures interact". The other important factor is how well we can orchestrate tread-offs and interactions in order to maintain ecological balance. Scientific bodies like the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have access to vast amounts of baseline data relating to the subject - although critics point out that the information available is mostly from the North, leaving the concerns of the South largely unpresented. The newly-constituted eco-panel will have to take all these aspects into account. For instance, it will have to ensure that data collection is more representative of the regions of the world. Today, we have the advantage of sourcing data from remote sensing satellites as well. The information thus gathered would have to be sorted out and analyzed by specialists and also by generalists - before the panel comes out with specific periodic predictions, prescriptions and warnings. the e\healing process can begin only if all the scientific evidence and direction is made available to a wide audience and not just restricted to policy makers. Rather than depending solely upon governments to listen to and take corrective action, the focus should now be on convincing individuals and communities whose collective or individual action will eventually make the difference between regression and recovery.



Passage 4

In our country begging has become a profession and the beggars continue to increase in numbers. So, vast indeed is the fraternity of these beggars that foreigners visiting India, especially ,cities like Varanasi, our cities of pilgrimage, have been led to call our cities the cities of beggars and of dust ! There are no statistics available for estimating their number, but that is not needed for our present purpose. Of course, any practical reform in this matter does not require a close investigation into the causes and conditions of the existence of beggars, but we are here concerned with the question of seeing how these beggars live and what, in particular, is the effect on society of their existence. As already suggested, the vastness of the number of the Indian beggars is evident to any visitor from a foreign country. The causes of the increase in the number of beggars are many, but of these we may just consider only a few. For good or evil, Indians have been very religious in their outlook on life, and also very generous and hospitable towards those who go to them for begging. Our Puranas and Shastras point out that giving charity to beggars ensures Moksha in the next world. The social conscience deveolped from such an article of faith has been the main cause of the increase in the number of beggars. They are always sure of finding people anxious to go to heaven by offering doles and donations to the needy and so they are thriving. There are many beggars whose profession has been hereditary - a strange perversion of human nature, which, as we are told, ought to eat out of the sweat of its brow. The most amusing spectacle from the point of view of reason, is to see able-bodied persons, dressed in abundance of rags and many coloured clothes wandering about the streets and going from house to house regularly at certain hours for no more serious a purpose than that of begging ! This might be seen at almost any village and town in our country. For ages uncounted this thing has been going on. The ignorant masses have a fear of the curse supposed to emanate from the mouths of angered beggars, and thus the beggars get more than they need. In fact, strange as it might seem, a considerable number of these beggars are richer . than their poor patrons ! With the percolation of social consciousness among the modern educated Indians, the problem of beggars is today being seriously thought about and ways and means are being seriously mooted on how to solve this problem. When we read how in the West, for example, begging has become a crime coming under the vagrancy acts of Parliaments and when we know that in some countries people are warned that "Those who do not work, neither shall they eat", we begin to think how depressing is the situation in India. Poverty, no doubt, is one of the major causes of begging, and unemployment and increase in population have also been responsible for the same, but the disease-of begging has deeper roots in the social consciousness of us all, and it is to this that any reformer has to turn. We must make it clear to the masses that there is no special glory of Punya in giving charity to the able-bodied persons, and that such misplaced charity is only increasing idleness and chronic poverty. If the masses are educated in social science, its elementary principles at any rate, there will be a gradual lessening of the number of beggars in our country. The State, too, has to devise laws for checking the growth of beggars. Some strict laws against vagrants must be put into practice in every city and village in India. It is more important to introduce them in holy cities where the beggars are leading the most unholy life. Finally, it is for the development of saner outlook on life that we must agitate if we are to root out this evil of beggary. In one form or another, begging has become the most widespread thing today. Some are honourable, modernised beggars in pants and boots and ties and they have subtler ways of exploiting their patron victims.
Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors:(10)


(i) The Greeks were brave peoples.

(ii) His hat was blown off by the strong air.

(iii) I am the one who am to blame.

(iv) We should sympathies with blind.

(v) I'd rather play cricket and not swim.

(vi) Walking through the front door a wasp stung him.

(vii) Two plus nine are eleven.

(viii) I have built the house in 1960.

(ix) Their wedding has not been a very happy one.

(x) Choose only such friends whom you can trust.



Rewrite the following sentences, inserting suitable articles where necessary:(5)


(i) What kind of ______ animals is it?

(ii) He will return in _____ hour.

(iii) He is ______ richest man in our street.

(iv) Gold is not ______ useful metal.

(v) While there is ______ life there is hope.



Form Verbs from the following Nouns:(5)


(i) Courage

(ii) Memory

(iii) Prison

(iv) Class

(v) Friend



Put the verbs in bracket in the correct tense and rewrite the following:(5)


India (have) many calendars which Indians (use) since very early times. More than thirty (be) still in use. One difficulty about having so many calendars (be) that the same date (fall) on different days according to each.



Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors:

(i) Neither percept nor discipline are so forceful as example.

(ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood.

(iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?

(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet.

(v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them,

(vi) On entering the hail, the number of visitors surprised me

(vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words.

(viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly.

(ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.

(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.



Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences:

(i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod.

(ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance.

(iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits.

(iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks.

(v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.



Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences:

(i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take.
knows (B) is known (C) has been known (D) has known

(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken (C) broke (D) has broken

(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed.
(A) had answered (B) would have answered (C) would answer (D) has broken

(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department.
(A) to have given (B) having given (C) have given (D) to give

(v) Please don't ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open (C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door



Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

(i) He said, "I will not approve of such a behaviour in future."

(ii) He said on the telephone, "We kept on doing our work till late night."

(iii) She said, "As your mother is ill, you must go home at once."

(iv) Ram said to Sita, "Do you intend to come with me to the forest?"

(v) The child said to the Sherpa, "Why didn't you choose to climb to the Moon?"



Correct the following sentences:

(i) He boasts his achievements now and then.

(ii) She is living in this flat since 1995.

(iii) The principal was angry upon the boys.

(iv) Character is more preferable than intelligence.

(v) Krishna hanged all the pictures on the wall.

(vi) The sceneries of Kashmir move me most.

(vii) Cattle is grazing in the field.

(viii) Hari is going foreign next month.

(ix) She knew that I am leaving the place.

(x) His elder brother gave him many good advices.



Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks:

(i) The road accident proved to be ______ (fateful, fatal)

(ii) He got a ________ opportunity to qualify in the test. (gold, golden)

(iii) Faridabad is an ______ city. (industrial, industrious)

(iv) An ashram is a ________ place. (quiet, quite)

(v) Sohan's handwriting is _________ (eligible, illegible)

(vi) We should not disturb the ___________ of his mind. (piece, peace)

(vii) You should ____ an example to strengthen your viewpoint. (site, cite)

(viii) Akbar was an ______ to Humayun. (hair, heir)

(ix) Rajasthan is a well known ___________ (desert, dessert)

(x) The _______ turned me out of the class. (principle, principal).



Correct the following sentences :

(i) If you will run, you will catch the train.

(ii) I am too glad to help you.

(iii) I am fed up of his evil ways.

(iv) He has only two brother-in-laws.

(v) I am one of those persons who cannot describe what I feel.

(vi) He has not bought some books.

(vii) Do not prevent the child to read.

(viii) I doubt that she will help you.

(ix) Ganges is a holy river.

(x) He is more intelligent than either of his four brothers.


Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that you think is appropriate :

(i) He is an .................. mechanic. (ingenuous / ingenious)

(ii) He died after he had been struck by .................. .(lightning / lightening)

(iii) Your story is not at all ................... .(credulous / credible)

(iv) Only the virtuous experience true ................. .(facility / felicity)

(v) Some politicians try to influence the ............... officers.(judicious / judicial)

(vi) You cannot question his honesty and ................. . (veracity / voracity)

(vii) The patient is still in a state of ................. .(comma / coma)

(viii) After the accident, the field was covered with ................. .(corpses / corps)

(ix) He is a dealer in .................... . (stationary / stationery)

(x) You should settle this dispute in an ................. way.(amiable / amicable)
Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a Noun and then as a Verb:(10)


(i) Bank

(ii) Battle

(iii) Bite

(iv) Brave

(v) Brush



Change the following sentences into their corresponding (a) Negatives and (b) Questions:(10)


(i) Ram resembles his father.

(ii) Raju studies French.

(iii) The bicycle costs Rs. 500.

(iv) The thief broke the window open.

(v) My mother has a beautiful umbrella.



Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning:(5)


(i) The Lion's share

(ii) Close shave

(iii) At daggers drawn

(iv) (To) die in harness

(v) (To) eat one's words



Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences:

For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days. (i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work.

(ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk.

(iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people.

(iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan.

(v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years.

(vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir.

(vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs.

(viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________.

(ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility.

(x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold.


Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning:

(i) Pitch (as noun and verb)

(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)

(iii) Humble(as adjective and verb)

(iv) In(as adverb and preposition)


Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning:

(i) bell the cat

(ii) thank one's stars

(iii) be on tenterhooks

(iv) true to one's salt colours

(v) come ant with flying



Use of the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning:

(i) bring about

(ii) call names

(iii) run out

(iv) by leaps and bounds

(v) lame excuse


Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below:

ride, diminish, devotion, shout, watch, contest, disastrous, pleasure, philosophizing, finance

(i) Mohan is _________________ to his father

(ii) None seems to have been ______________ with his speech.

(iii) She ________ at the peon when he sat down.

(iv) His _________ condition is at a low ebb now.

(v) Several candidates are _________________ the Panchayat elections.

(vi) The boy was frightened to __________ the movie.

(vii) What does Samkara's _________ teach us?

(viii) Hariharan's suspicious moves herald a _______

(ix) In the circus show, I saw a bear _____________ a bicycle.

(x) The chances of starvation deaths have __________ today.


Use each of the following words in two separate sentences first as a noun and then as a verb:

(i) race (ii) hit (iii) play (iv) touch, (v) experiment.


Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically:

(i) "Do not make a noise", said the teacher to his students. (Change into indirect form)

(ii) Hari is so short that he cannot touch the ceiling. (Replace 'so' by 'too')

(iii) I gave him a ten-rupee note yesterday. (change into passive voice)

(iv) She bought a house last year. the house is white. (Change into simple sentence).

(v) Hard as as he worked, he failed in the examination. (Use 'though').



Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below :

abhor, alter, determine, dwell, fellow, handle, innocent, slay, torrent, radiant.

(i) He is making a ..................... effort to succeed in the examination.

(ii) We should hold corruption in ...................... .

(iii) He ....................... in a rented house in Delhi last year.

(iv) There is no ..................... in this, town; it is the same as it was five years ago.

(v) He deserves praise ................... for the situation tactfully.

(vi) We love children for their ................... .

(vii) The crops have been damaged by these ............... rains.

(viii) The rich man has been ................... by the militants.

(ix) The ................. of his face suggests that he is a saint.

(x) He has been awarded a .................. for studying in Canada.


Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb :

favour, meet, occasion, sound, support.


Do as directed :

(i) A stranger said to me, "Do you know me ?" (Change into the Indirect form of Narration.)

(ii) He is blind ............... his own faults. (Use the correct preposition.)

(iii) Are you not making a noise ? (Write it in the passive voice.)

(iv) Is virtue not its own reward ? (Transform into an assertive sentence.)

(v) God is present everywhere. (Substitute a single word for "present everywhere".)